Modules 16 & 17 Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Modules 16 & 17 Vocabulary Deck (19)
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1

: the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receives stimulus energies from our environment

Sensation

2

: the process of organizing and interpreting information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events

Perception

3

: analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information

Bottom-up processing

4

: information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations

Top-down processing

5

: the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus

Selective attention

6

: failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

Inattentional blindness

7

: failing to notice changes in the environment

Change blindness

8

: conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brain can interpret

Transduction

9

: the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them

Psychophysics

10

: the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time

Absolute threshold

11

: a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a aunt stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise). Assumes that there is no signal absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person’s experience, expectations, motivation, and alertness

Signal detection theory

12

: below one’s absolute threshold for conscious awareness

Subliminal

13

: the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one’s perception, memory, or response

Priming

14

: the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference (or jnd

Difference threshold

15

: the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)

Weber’s law

16

: diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

Sensory adaptation

17

: a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another

Perceptual set

18

: the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input; includes telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition

Extrasensory perception (ESP)

19

: the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis

Parapsychology