Module 4.4 - Touch and the Chemical Senses Flashcards Preview

intro psychology > Module 4.4 - Touch and the Chemical Senses > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 4.4 - Touch and the Chemical Senses Deck (48):
1

what are the 6 independent senses of touch?

1) pressure
2) warmth and cold
3) pain
4) vibration
5) movement
6) stretch of skin

2

what do the sensations of touch depend on?

these sensations depend on several different kinds of receptors

3

what are the 4 steps "from touch to brain"

1) A skin (or internal organ) receptor is stimulated
2) A signal travels up the spinal cord
3) Initial signals are processed by the thalamus
4) Signals are sent to the somatosensory cortex

4

true or false: sensitivity to touch varies across different regions of the body

true

5

more sensitive areas are allotted more _____ in the parietal cortex

more tissue

6

true or false: touch is not sensitive to change

FALSE: touch is very sensitive to change

7

Haptics

the active, exploratory aspect of touch sensation and perception

8

Kinesthesis

the sense of bodily motion and position

9

where are receptors for kinesthesis?

muscles, joints and tendons

10

what is kinesthesis involved in?

balance, movement and handling objects

11

nociception

the activity of nerve pathways that respond to uncomfortable stimulation

12

where are nociceptors found?

in our skin, teeth, corneas, and internal organs

13

what are the 2 types of nerve fibers that transmit pain messages?

1) Fast Fibers
2) Slow Fibers

14

Fast Fibers

register sharp immediate pain (e.g., the pain of cutting yourself)

15

Slow Fibers

register chronic, dull pain (e.g., the lingering feelings after stubbing your toe)

16

Gate-Control Theory

our experience of pain is an interaction between nerves that transmit pain messages and those that inhibit these messages

17

where does the interaction between nerves that transmit pain messages and those that inhibit these messages occur?

occurs in the spinal cord

18

_____ nerve fibers conduct pain messages

small nerve fibers conduct pain messages

19

_____ nerve fibers conduct other sensory signals (e.g., rubbing)

large nerve fibers conduct other sensory signals

20

what is the result of stimulation of the small pain fibers?

results in pain

21

what is the result of the large fibers?

inhibit pain signals

22

true or false: pain involves physical perception (somatosensory cortex) and an emotional response (anterior cingulate cortex)

True

23

phantom limb sensations

some amputees report pain and other sensations (itching, muscle contractions) coming from the absent limb

24

what does amputation do to stimulation of the region of the somatosensory cortex associated with that limb?

amputation reduces stimulation

25

amputation makes the cells become ________

hypersensitive

26

mirror box therapy

a treatment used to trick the brain into reducing phantom limb sensations

27

true or false: taste is not an essential sensation

FALSE: taste was essential for our species survival

28

what are 2 reasons that make taste essential to our survival?

1) it (usually) leads us to prefer nutrient-rich foods
2) we avoided bad tasting foods (potential toxins)

29

gustatory system

a sensory system involved in the sensation and perception of taste

30

what is the main sensory organ of the gustatory system?

the tongue

31

how many taste buds are on the tongue?

~9000 taste buds

32

true or false: most neurons are sensitive to a particular type of taste

True

33

what are the 5 primary tastes?

salty, sweet, bitter, sour, and umami

34

the bumps on the tongue are called?

papillae

35

the papillae are lined with?

taste buds

36

what are found within the taste buds...how many on each taste bud?

there are 15-50 taste receptors per taste bud

37

how many taste buds does a non taster have?

<15

38

how many taste buds does a normal taster have?

15-35

39

how many taste buds does a super taster have?

>35

40

population coding

perception of a flavour will involve assessment of the firing patterns of many input channels, not one specific channel

41

the taste receptors send the signal through the thalamus and on to the ________ in the insula

gustatory cortex

42

olfactory system

a sensory system involved in smell - the detection of airborne particles with specialized receptors located in the nose

43

olfactory epithelium

a thin layer of cells that are lined by sensory receptors called cilia, which contain specialized proteins that bind with the airborne molecules that enter the nasal cavity

44

humans have ~_____ different odour receptors

1000

45

the patterns of firing allow us to detect ~_______ different odours

10,000

46

olfactory bulb

a structure on the bottom surface of the frontal lobes that serves as the brains central region for processing smell

47

multimodal integration

the ability to combine sensation from different modalities such as vision and hearing into a single integrated perception

48

synaesthesia

a condition involving blended multimodal associations (e.g., chicken that tastes 'pointy')