Flashcards in Module 4.4 - Touch and the Chemical Senses Deck (48)
what are the 6 independent senses of touch?
2) warmth and cold
6) stretch of skin
what do the sensations of touch depend on?
these sensations depend on several different kinds of receptors
what are the 4 steps "from touch to brain"
1) A skin (or internal organ) receptor is stimulated
2) A signal travels up the spinal cord
3) Initial signals are processed by the thalamus
4) Signals are sent to the somatosensory cortex
true or false: sensitivity to touch varies across different regions of the body
more sensitive areas are allotted more _____ in the parietal cortex
true or false: touch is not sensitive to change
FALSE: touch is very sensitive to change
the active, exploratory aspect of touch sensation and perception
the sense of bodily motion and position
where are receptors for kinesthesis?
muscles, joints and tendons
what is kinesthesis involved in?
balance, movement and handling objects
the activity of nerve pathways that respond to uncomfortable stimulation
where are nociceptors found?
in our skin, teeth, corneas, and internal organs
what are the 2 types of nerve fibers that transmit pain messages?
1) Fast Fibers
2) Slow Fibers
register sharp immediate pain (e.g., the pain of cutting yourself)
register chronic, dull pain (e.g., the lingering feelings after stubbing your toe)
our experience of pain is an interaction between nerves that transmit pain messages and those that inhibit these messages
where does the interaction between nerves that transmit pain messages and those that inhibit these messages occur?
occurs in the spinal cord
_____ nerve fibers conduct pain messages
small nerve fibers conduct pain messages
_____ nerve fibers conduct other sensory signals (e.g., rubbing)
large nerve fibers conduct other sensory signals
what is the result of stimulation of the small pain fibers?
results in pain
what is the result of the large fibers?
inhibit pain signals
true or false: pain involves physical perception (somatosensory cortex) and an emotional response (anterior cingulate cortex)
phantom limb sensations
some amputees report pain and other sensations (itching, muscle contractions) coming from the absent limb
what does amputation do to stimulation of the region of the somatosensory cortex associated with that limb?
amputation reduces stimulation
amputation makes the cells become ________
mirror box therapy
a treatment used to trick the brain into reducing phantom limb sensations
true or false: taste is not an essential sensation
FALSE: taste was essential for our species survival
what are 2 reasons that make taste essential to our survival?
1) it (usually) leads us to prefer nutrient-rich foods
2) we avoided bad tasting foods (potential toxins)
a sensory system involved in the sensation and perception of taste