Psychological Disorders Part 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psychological Disorders Part 4 Deck (26):
1

major depression

a disorder marked by prolonged periods of sadness, feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness, social withdrawal and cognitive and physical sluggishness

2

major depression affects almost ___% of Canadians and is twice as common in women

10%

3

5 emotional symptoms of depression

sadness, hopelessness, anxiety, misery, inability to enjoy

4

cognitive symptoms of depression

negative cognitions about self, world and future

5

3 motivational symptoms of depression

loss of interest, lack of drive, difficulty starting anythig

6

4 somatic symptoms of depression

loss of appetite, lack of energy, sleep difficulties, weight loss

7

ISG explanatory style

Internalizing, Stabilizing, Globalizing

8

2 key brain regions of interest related to depression

1) limbic system, involved in emotional responses and processing
2) dorsal PFC, involved in concentration and attentional control

9

vulnerability-stress model

assumes (1) that some people are more prone to depression than others, and (2) this predisposition will interact with cognitive and situational factors

10

3 sociocultural influences on mood disorders

1) level of daily stress
2) vulnerability to negative events
3) disrupted social ties

11

antidepressents

- decrease brainstem activity related to arousal
- reduce amygdala activity
- promote neurogenesis in the hippocampus

12

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

increase the activity of serotonin at the postsynaptic cell by slowing the rate of reuptake of serotonin molecules into the presynaptic cell

13

tricyclic antidepressants

block reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine

14

monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

block the activity of the monoamine oxidase enzyme, which breaks down key neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin

15

cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)

a form of therapy that consists of procedures such as cognitive restructuring, stress inoculation training and exposing people to experiences they may have a tendency to avoid

16

electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

passing an electrical current through the brain in order to induce a temporary seizure

17

transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

a therpeutic technique in which a focal area of the brain is exposed to a powerful magnetic field

18

deep brain stimulation (DBS)

a technique that involves electrically stimulating specific regions of the brain inserting thin electrode-tipped wires and carefully routing them to the targeted brain regions

19

focal lesions

when small areas of brain tissue are surgically destroyed

20

anterior cingulotomy

the removal of cluster of cells in the anterior cingulate cortex, an area which is overactive in some people with depression, OC and anxiety disorder

21

Bipolar disorder

a mood disorder characterized by extreme highs and lows in mood, motivation and energy

22

manic symptoms

- mania must last for longer than 1 week, and must include 3 or more of the following symptoms: inflated self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, more talkative, flight of ideas, distractibility

23

mood stabilizers

drugs used to prevent or reduce the severity of mood swings experienced by people with bipolar disorder

24

lithium

a salt compound that was one of the first mood stabilizers; it was the standard drug treatment for depression and bipolar disorder

25

true or false: lithium is not toxic

FALSE: lithium is toxic at higher doses

26

true or false: relapse rate is much higher for bipolar than for depressed patients

true