The process by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and repair of tissues.
**Which of the following is in a CPT’s scope of practice?
Getting and designing a cardio program.
**Law of thermodynamics:
Eat fewer calories than are expended and there will be a reduction in weight. Conversely, consume more calories than are expended and there will be an increase in weight.
**What leads to weight gain?
Excess intake of any nutrient is what causes gain.
A personal trainer can use IIFYM & suggest _____________.
TDEE or TEE
Total Daily Energy Expenditure or Total Energy Expenditure. Defined as the amt of energy (calories) spend on avg, in a typical day.
TEE is the sum total of 3 dfferent energy components:
Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR), Thermic Effect of Food (TEF), and Energy expended during physical activity.
Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR):
The amt of energy expended at rest; min amt of energy required to sustain vital bodily functions. Typically 70% of TEE.
Thermic Effect of Food (TEF):
The amt of energy expended above RMR as a result of the processing of food (digestion) for storage and use. Approx 6-10% of TEE.
Energy expended during physical activity:
The amt of energy expended above RMR & TEF associated w physical activity. Accounts for approx 20% of TEE.
The amt of heat energy required to raise the temp of 1 gram of water 1 degree C.
A unit of expression of energy equal to 1,000 calories. The amt of heat energy required to raise the temp of 1 kilo or liter of water 1 degree C.
A unit of expression of energy equal to 1,000 calories. The amt of heat required to raise the temp of 1 kilo or liter of water 1 degree C.
Resting Metabolic Rate is also referred to as:
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR).
Estimating Total Daily Energy Expenditure:
Step 1: Weight (lbs) x 10 = RMR
Step 2: RMR x activity factor (very light, low active, active, heavy).
NASM recommends a ____ calories deficit to lose 1 lbs/week.
500 calories deficit.
NASM recommends a ____ calories surplus to gain weight.
**There are __ essential amino acids the body can’t produce.
What are the 8 amino acids the body can’t produce?
Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine.
**Where do protein stands initially begin digesting?
In the stomach.
Body doesn’t like to use _____ for fuel. Not efficient.
Protein can be stored as ____.
If a food supplies all of the essential amino acids in appropriate ratios it is called a __________.
**In endurance athletes what is the minimum protein recommendation?
1.2 g/kg weight.
**If you have a diet higher than 35% of total calories from protein what can it cause? (negative affect).
**What macro consumed at 35% or more of total calories can cause kidney problems?
Due to kidneys having to work harder to eliminate increased urea.
Protein & carbs are both __ calories/gram.
Fat is __ calories/gram.
Alcohol is __ calories/gram.
**What is okay for a trainer to tell a client about protein supplement use?
It may be useful to quickly get amino acids into the blood before and after weight training.
Neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (such as sugars, starches, and celluloses), which make up a large portion of animal foods.
Single sugar unit, connected to make starches (storage form of carbs in plants) and glycogen (storage form of carbs in humans). Monosaccharides include glucose (blood sugar), fructose (fruit sugar), and galactose.
Storage form of carbs in plants.
(Two sugar units) include sucrose (or common sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and maltose.
Long chains of monosaccharide units linked together and found in foods that contain starch and fiber.
The principal carbs present in food occur in the form of _________, _________, and ________.
Simple sugars, starches, and cellulose.
Amt of sugar that reaches blood and how fast.
Glycemic Index for Assorted Foods:
Spiking of blood sugar in different foods.
**What is best to eat before an endurance event?
Baked white potato.
_____helps decrease blood sugar spike.
Role of fiber in health:
Adds bulk to diet and movement of system.
**Consuming ___ g per kg of carbohydrate within 30 minutes of completing exercise is recommended to maximize glycogen replenishment.
1.5 grams per kilogram.
Process of hydrogenation. (margarine, shortening, fried foods, doughnuts, fast food, baked goods, pastries).
Digestion of dietary fats starts in the ______, moves to the ________, and is completed in the _________.
Mouth. Stomach. Small intestine.
What percent of calories from fat is recommended?
Dietary fats stimulate the release of ____, a hormone that signals satiety.
**Which of the following syndromes is commonly seen w/ obesity?
A cluster of symptoms characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia.
Insulin resistance will make you _____.
What percent of calories from fat is recommended for athletes?
Importance of water:
Water helps break down fat. Endocrine gland function improves, fluid retention is alleviates, liver functions improve, increasing % of fat used for energy, natural thirst returns, metabolic functions improve, nutrients are distributed throughout the body, body temp regulation improves, blood volume is maintained.
**Ingest __ to __ ounces of fluid for every pound of body weight lost after an exercise bout, especially if rapid re-hydration is necessary, as in twice a day training.
**NASM says low carb=_________.
Loss of water weight.