Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (63)
Body Mass Index. It is a general guide to estimate how much of a person's weight is due to adipose tissue.
What is the formula for BMI?
BMI = weight (lbs) / height (in)ˆ2 X 703
What are some criticisms of BMI?
BMI does not take into account gender, fitness, or bone structure.
What is a healthy BMI?
A healthy BMI is 18.5-24.9.
What is an overweight BMI?
An overweight BMI is 25 to 29.9.
What is considered an obese BMI?
Obese is a BMI of more than or equal to 30.
What is considered a morbidly obese BMI?
A morbidly obese BMI is a BMI equal to or greater than 40.
Roughly what percentage of adults in the US are obese?
Roughly 1/3 of adults in the US are obese.
How does obesity correlate with income?
Obesity tends to increase with an increase in income.
What is obesity associated with?
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of premature death, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, CVD, stroke, gallbladder disease, respiratory dysfunction, osteoarthritis, and certain cancers.
A high carbohydrate and fiber diet through whole grains and vegetables.
A low-carbohydrate, high protein and fat diet.
Zone and South Beach diets
Low carbohydrate diets that are high in proteins and healthy fats.
Name three 'Quick & Easy' forms of weight loss that are often unhealthy.
Trendy diet programs
Stapling or partitioning of a small portion of the stomach
Attaching the lower part of the small intestine to the stomach so most of the food bypasses the stomach and small intestine.
A constriction band is used to reduce stomach size
Removal of fat cells; best used for overweight people that are not obese or morbidly obese.
Nutrients are components of food that are needed to perform physiological body functions.
Name five types of nutrients.
Carbohydrates are sugars or polysaccharides that are digested into the simple sugars which are an important energy source.
Give a few examples of complex carbohydrates, and say what they are a good source of.
Complex carbohydrates are a good source of vitamins and minerals. A few examples of complex carbohydrates are beans, whole-grain products, nuts, and fruits.
Give a few examples of refined grains, and why they should be minimized in one's diet.
Refined grains should be minimized in one's diet because fiber and vitamins are removed. A few examples of refined grains are white bread, cake, and cookies.
Give two examples of possible harmful carbohydrates, and explain why they might be harmful.
Refined sugars and fructose sweeteners may contribute to obesity. They may cause the pancreas to secrete large amounts of insulin which can lead to insulin resistance seen in type 2 diabetes and increased fat metabolism.
What may an increase in fat deposition increase the risk of?
An increase in fat deposition may increase the risk of coronary heart disease, liver diseases, and certain cancers.
What are proteins digested into?
Proteins are digested into 20 different amino acids which are used to produce cellular proteins.
What are the essential amino acids?
Essential amino acids are the 8 amino acids that must be attained through diet.
What are complete proteins?
Complete proteins are proteins that have all essential amino acids and that are usually (but not always) derived from animals such as meat and dairy.
Give a few non-animal sources of complete proteins.
Non-animal sources of complete proteins are tofu, soymilk, and other processed food from soybeans.
What are incomplete proteins?
Incomplete proteins are proteins that lack at least one essential amino acid and need to be combined with another incomplete protein to allow all amino acids to be used in the body.
Give a few sources of incomplete proteins.
A few sources of incomplete proteins are legumes, nuts, grains, etc.
Can amino acids be stored in the body?
No, amino acids cannot be stored in the body, thus small amounts (2 meat servings) need to be ingested on a daily basis.
What can an overabundance of protein lead to?
An overabundance of protein can result in dehydration during exercise and sweating. It can also lead to calcium loss in urine which can lead to kidney stones.
What is a problem with eating too much red meat as a source of protein?
A problem with eating red meat as a source of protein is that it is high in saturated fats that can lean to CVD.
Name three types of lipids.
Lipids include fats, oils, and cholesterol.
Describe saturated fats.
Saturated fats, usually of animal origin, are usually solid at room temperature.
Describe unsaturated fats.
Unsaturated fats are usually liquid at room temperature.
What are essential fatty acids?
Essential fatty acids are fatty acids that must be ingested.
Name two essential fatty acids, as well as where they can be found.
Linoleic acid and linolenic acid are two essential fatty acids. They can only be found in polyunsaturated oils such as corn and safflower.
What is CVD often a result of?
CVD is often a result of arteries blocked by plaque made of cholesterol and saturated fats.
LDL, or low density lipoprotein, is the "bad" cholesterol because it carries cholesterol from the liver to the cells.
What increases LDL, and what decreases it?
LDL is increased by saturated fats and decreased by unsaturated fats.
HDL, or high density lipoprotein, is the "good"cholesterol because it carries cholesterol to the liver, where it is converted to bile salts.
What are trans-fatty acids, and what might they do?
Trans-fatty acids are made by hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids for commercial products and may reduce the ability of cells to clear cholesterol from the bloodstream.
How much does the body contain of each major mineral?
The body has >5g of each major mineral.
How much does the body contain of each trace mineral?
The body contains <5g of each trace mineral.
What do major minerals make up?
Major minerals make up components of cells, body fluids, and tissues (i.e., calcium).
What do minor minerals make up in the body?
Minor minerals are components of larger molecules (i.e., iron in hemoglobin).
How does one get the various minerals one needs?
One gets the various minerals one needs through a varied and complete diet.
Vitamins are organic compounds (not including proteins, fats, or carbohydrates) that are used for metabolism but not produced in high enough quantities by the body.
What do vitamins do with enzymes?
Vitamins are often enzyme helpers - coenzymes.
How many vitamins are there total?
There are 13 vitamins total.
Name the two groups of vitamins.
Name the four fat-soluble vitamins.
Name the nine water-soluble vitamins.
What are antioxidants?
Antioxidants are chemicals that decrease the rate of oxidation or transfer of electrons.
What vitamins are considered to be antioxidants?
Vitamin C, E, and A are considered antioxidants.
Why are vitamins C, E, and A considered to be antioxidants?
Vitamins C, E, and A are considered antioxidants because they are thought to defend the body against free radicals that can transfer electrons and damage cells and DNA.
What are vitamins common in?
Vitamins are common in fruits and vegetables.
Psychological disorder due to fear of getting fat; usually results in self-induced starvation, high physical activity, and may include purging
Disorder in which people eat large amounts of high-calorie food (binge-eating) followed by purging to avoid weight gain, often more than once a day.
Obese people are afflicted; overeating is not followed by purging, and this can lead to depression, anger, anxiety, and more binges