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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (48)
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0

Give two functions of the respiratory system.

Allows for gas exchanges in the body
Helps to regulate blood pH (7.4 is ideal)

1

What does oxygen diffuse into?

Oxygen diffuses into plasma and red blood cells.

2

What is oxygen carried by in red blood cells?

Oxygen is carried by hemoglobin in red blood cells.

3

What does carbon-dioxide diffuse out of, and what then happens to it?

Carbon-dioxide diffuses out of plasma into lungs and is then exhaled from the body.

4

What is the pathway that air follows?

nose-pharynx-larynx-trachea-bronchus-bronchioles-alveoli

5

Give the three parts of the upper respiratory tract.

Nose
Pharynx
Larynx

6

Nares

Another word for nostrils.

7

Where does the nose open, and what does it lead into?

The nose opens at the nares (nostrils) and leads into the nasal cavities.

8

What filters the air in the nose?

Hairs and mucus in the nose filter the air.

9

What is the function of the capillaries in the nasal cavity?

The capillaries in the nasal cavity warm and moisten the air.

10

Odor Receptors

Specialized cells in the nasal cavities act as odor receptors.

11

Where do the tear glands drain?

Tear glands drain into the nasal cavities. This can lead to a runny nose.

12

Pharynx

The pharynx is a funnel-shaped cavity commonly called the throat.

13

What do tonsils do, and where are they?

Tonsils provide a lymphatic defense during breathing at the junction of the oral cavity and the pharynx.

14

Larynx

The larynx is a triangular, cartilaginous structure that passes air between the pharynx and the trachea.

15

What is the larynx called, and what does it house?

The larynx is called the voice box, and it houses vocal cords.

16

Glottis

The opening in the middle of the 2 mucosal folds that make up the vocal cords.

17

What makes up the vocal cords?

The vocal cords are made up of 2 mucosal folds.

18

Name the three parts of the lower respiratory tract.

Trachea
Bronchial tree
Lungs

19

Trachea

The trachea is a tube, often called the windpipe, that connects the larynx with the primary bronchi.

20

What is the trachea made of?

The trachea is made of connective tissue, smooth muscle, and cartilaginous rings.

21

What is the trachea lined with, and what function does this lining serve?

The trachea is lined with cilia and muscle that help to keep the lungs clean.

22

Describe the bronchial tree.

The bronchial tree starts with 2 main bronchi that lead from the trachea into the lungs. They continue to branch until they are small bronchioles, which eventually lead to elongated sacs called alveoli.

23

Bronchioles

Bronchioles are the small part of the bronchial tree, about 1 mm in diameter with thinner walls.

24

What makes up the lungs?

The secondary bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli make up the lungs.

25

How many lobes does the right lung have?

The right lung has 3 lobes.

26

How many lobes does the left lung have?

The left lung has 2 lobes.

27

How many alveoli are in the lungs, and what do they do?

There are 300 million alveoli in the lungs that greatly increase surface area.

28

What are the alveoli enveloped by?

Alveoli are enveloped by blood capillaries?

29

What do the alveoli and the capillaries allow?

The alveoli and the capillaries are one layer of the epithelium to allow exchange of gases.

30

What are alveoli lined with?

Alveoli are lined with surfactant.

31

What does the surfactant do in the alveoli?

The surfactant lining the alveoli acts as a film to keep the alveoli open.

32

Name the two phases of breathing/ventilation.

Inspiration
Expiration

33

Inspiration

Inspiration is an active process of inhalation that brings air into the lungs.

34

Expiration

Expiration is a typically passive process of exhalation that expels air from the lungs.

35

Give the first stage of inspiration.

The diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract.

36

Give the second stage of inspiration.

The diaphragm flattens and the rib cage moves upward and outward.

37

Give the third stage of inspiration.

The volume of the thoracic cavity and lungs increase.

38

Give the fourth stage of inspiration.

In the fourth stage of inspiration, the air pressure within the lungs decreases.

39

Give the fifth and final stage of inspiration.

In the final stage of inspiration, air flows into the lungs.

40

Give the first stage of expiration.

In the first stage of expiration, the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax.

41

Give the second stage of expiration.

In the second stage of expiration, the diaphragm moves upward and becomes dome-shaped.

42

Give the third stage of expiration.

In the third stage of expiration, the rib cage moves downward and upward.

43

Give the fourth stage of expiration.

The fourth stage of expiration is when the volume of the thoracic cavity and the lungs decreases.

44

Give the fifth stage of expiration.

In the fifth stage of expiration, the air pressure within the lungs increases.

45

Give the sixth and final stage of expiration.

In the sixth and final stage of expiration, air flows out of the lungs.

46

How does the respiratory control center in the brain control breathing?

The respiratory control center in the brain (medulla oblongata) sends out nerve impulses to contract muscle for inspiration.

47

What is thought to cause Sudden Infant Death Syndrome?

Sudden infant death syndrome is thought to occur when the respiratory control center in the brain (medulla oblongata) stops sending out nerve signals.