Flashcards in Molecules of Life Deck (18)
Carbon - Organic Chemistry
Atomic Number = 6
4 electrons in outer shell, meaning molecules may form in complex shapes.
The simplest organic compounds, consisting of only C + H.
Small sugars to long starch molecules.
Function: dietary energy; storage; plant structure.
Simple sugars. Glucose, Fructose - same formula, different shape.
Molecules with same molecular formula, but different structure.
Double sugar - Maltose, Lactose, Sucrose.
Long chains of sugar units. Starch, Cellulose.
Function: long-term energy storage (fats); hormones (steroids). Hydrophobic.
Largely molecules of triglyceride.
Max number of Hydrogen atoms. Animal fats, lard, butter. Solid at room temperature.
Fewer than max number of Hydrogen atoms.
Vegetable oils, fish oils. Liquid at room temperature.
Structurally contained four fused rings.
"Base steroid". Testosterone, Estrogen.
Synthetic variants of testosterone.
Pro - fast body size increase
Cons - violent mood swings, depression, liver damage, high cholesterol, shrunken testicles, reduced sex drive, infertility
Chain of amino acids linked with peptide bonds (covalent) and folded into a specific shape.
Function: MANY! Structure, storage, contraction, transport, defense (antibodies), signaling, etc.
20 different amino acids exist - R-group.
Information storage molecules made of nucleotides.
Function: provide directions for building proteins.