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Carbon - Organic Chemistry

Atomic Number = 6
4 electrons in outer shell, meaning molecules may form in complex shapes.

1

Hydrocarbons

The simplest organic compounds, consisting of only C + H.

2

Carbohydrates

Small sugars to long starch molecules.
Function: dietary energy; storage; plant structure.

3

Monosaccharides

Simple sugars. Glucose, Fructose - same formula, different shape.

4

Isomers

Molecules with same molecular formula, but different structure.

5

Disaccharides

Double sugar - Maltose, Lactose, Sucrose.

6

Polysaccharides

Long chains of sugar units. Starch, Cellulose.

7

Lipids

Function: long-term energy storage (fats); hormones (steroids). Hydrophobic.

8

Fats

Largely molecules of triglyceride.

9

Saturated Fats

Max number of Hydrogen atoms. Animal fats, lard, butter. Solid at room temperature.

10

Unsaturated Fats

Fewer than max number of Hydrogen atoms.
Vegetable oils, fish oils. Liquid at room temperature.

11

Steroids

Structurally contained four fused rings.

12

Cholesterol

"Base steroid". Testosterone, Estrogen.

13

Anabolic Steroids

Synthetic variants of testosterone.
Pro - fast body size increase
Cons - violent mood swings, depression, liver damage, high cholesterol, shrunken testicles, reduced sex drive, infertility

14

Proteins

Chain of amino acids linked with peptide bonds (covalent) and folded into a specific shape.

15

Amino Acid

Function: MANY! Structure, storage, contraction, transport, defense (antibodies), signaling, etc.
20 different amino acids exist - R-group.

16

Nucleic Acids

Information storage molecules made of nucleotides.
Function: provide directions for building proteins.

17

Nucleotides have three parts

Phosphate group - sugar - Nitrogenous base (in DNA - Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine)