Flashcards in Cell Theory Deck (30)
Two Categories of Cells
Lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane enclosed organelles.
A type of cell that has a membrane enclosed nucleus and other membrane enclosed organelles.
A thin film that separates a living cell from its surroundings and serves as a selective barrier to the passage of ions and molecules into and out of the cell.
2 fatty acid tails (hydrophobic)
1 phosphate group head (hydrophilic)
Entire region of the cell between the nucleus and plasma membrane, consisting of various organelles suspended in a fluid called cytosol.
Surrounded by a nuclear envelope, double membrane, and is the genetic control center where DNA molecules and proteins are stored.
Allow passage of matter between nucleus and cytoplasm.
Network of fine threads in the nucleus composed of DNA and proteins.
Chromatin condensed into a compact structure. The number of chromosomes depends on species.
Housed in the nucleus. Produces ribosomal subunits.
Assembled partly from subunits in nucleolus and move into the cytoplasm, where they "work", via nuclear pores. They make proteins as directed by DNA.
Four Parts of the Endomembrane System
Endoplasmic Reticulum - Rough and Smooth
Main manufacturing facilities within a cell
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Primarily produces membrane proteins and secretory proteins.
Membranous spheres that bud from the endoplasmic reticulum.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Functions: Synthesizes lipids (steroids), and detoxification (liver).
Receives, refines, stores, and distributes chemical products of the cell. Receives many transport vesicles from the Endoplasmic Reticulum.
Sac of digestive enzymes that break down macromolecules. Like a recycling center.
Network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm; cellular infrastructure. Maintains cell shape, and is dynamic - keeps moving.
Straight hollow tubes composed of globular proteins.
Thinner than microtubules, solid.
A long, threadlike appendage of certain cells or unicellular organisms that functions as an organ of locomotion.
Short appendages that propel some unicellular organisms through water and moves fluids across the surface of many tissue cells in animals.
Two organelles that help in Energy Conversion
Sites of cellular respiration, converting sugars and other food to chemical energy used by cells called ATP. Enclosed by two membranes; also contains DNA inherited from the mother, with instructions for making more mitochondria.
The inner foldings in the inner membrane of Mitochondria.
The inner fluid in mitochondria.
Potential energy which arises from the arrangement of atoms (e.g., carbohydrates, fats, etc.)