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Flashcards in Cell Theory Deck (30)
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Two Categories of Cells

Prokaryotic
Eukaryotic

1

Prokaryotic

Lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane enclosed organelles.

2

Eukaryotic

A type of cell that has a membrane enclosed nucleus and other membrane enclosed organelles.

3

Plasma Membrane

A thin film that separates a living cell from its surroundings and serves as a selective barrier to the passage of ions and molecules into and out of the cell.

4

Phospholipids

2 fatty acid tails (hydrophobic)
1 phosphate group head (hydrophilic)

5

Cytoplasm

Entire region of the cell between the nucleus and plasma membrane, consisting of various organelles suspended in a fluid called cytosol.

6

Nucleus

Surrounded by a nuclear envelope, double membrane, and is the genetic control center where DNA molecules and proteins are stored.

7

Nuclear pores

Allow passage of matter between nucleus and cytoplasm.

8

Chromatin

Network of fine threads in the nucleus composed of DNA and proteins.

9

Chromosome

Chromatin condensed into a compact structure. The number of chromosomes depends on species.

10

Nucleolus

Housed in the nucleus. Produces ribosomal subunits.

11

Ribosomes

Assembled partly from subunits in nucleolus and move into the cytoplasm, where they "work", via nuclear pores. They make proteins as directed by DNA.

12

Four Parts of the Endomembrane System

Endoplasmic Reticulum - Rough and Smooth
Lysosomes
Golgi apparatus

13

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Main manufacturing facilities within a cell

14

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Primarily produces membrane proteins and secretory proteins.

15

Transport Vesicles

Membranous spheres that bud from the endoplasmic reticulum.

16

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Functions: Synthesizes lipids (steroids), and detoxification (liver).

17

Golgi Apparatus

Receives, refines, stores, and distributes chemical products of the cell. Receives many transport vesicles from the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

18

Lysosomes

Sac of digestive enzymes that break down macromolecules. Like a recycling center.

19

Cytoskeleton

Network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm; cellular infrastructure. Maintains cell shape, and is dynamic - keeps moving.

20

Microtubules

Straight hollow tubes composed of globular proteins.

21

Filaments

Thinner than microtubules, solid.

22

Flagella

A long, threadlike appendage of certain cells or unicellular organisms that functions as an organ of locomotion.

23

Cilia

Short appendages that propel some unicellular organisms through water and moves fluids across the surface of many tissue cells in animals.

24

Two organelles that help in Energy Conversion

Mitochondria
Chloroplasts

25

Mitochondria

Sites of cellular respiration, converting sugars and other food to chemical energy used by cells called ATP. Enclosed by two membranes; also contains DNA inherited from the mother, with instructions for making more mitochondria.

26

Cristae

The inner foldings in the inner membrane of Mitochondria.

27

Matrix

The inner fluid in mitochondria.

28

Chemical Energy

Potential energy which arises from the arrangement of atoms (e.g., carbohydrates, fats, etc.)

29

ATP

Adenosinetriphosphate - energy used by cells, and is cyclical.