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Biology

The scientific study of life

1

Science

Knowledge acquired in a systematic fashion

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Life

The condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organisms.

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Characteristics of All Living Things

Order
Homeostasis
Growth & Development
Energy Utilization
Response to the Environment
Reproduction
Evolution

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Order

Complex but ordered organization

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Homeostasis

Ability to maintain internal environment despite changes in the external environment

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Growth and Development

An increase in size and often number of cells, coming as part of all of the changes that occur from the time the egg is fertilized until death.

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Energy Utilization

Obtain and transform energy to carry out life functions.

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Response to the environment (stimuli)

Functional activity triggered by external input.

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Reproduction

The ability to produce offspring of their own kind.

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Evolution

Change of populations over time.

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General Organizations of Life - Order

Size
Diversity

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Size levels of life

Biosphere - Ecosystem - Community - Population - Organism - Organ System - Organ - Tissue - Cells - Molecule - Atom

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Biosphere

Regions of the Earth's crust, waters, and atmosphere inhabited by living things.

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Ecosystem

A community plus the physical environment.

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Community

Interacting populations in a particular area

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Population

Organisms of the same species in a particular area

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Organism

An individual; complex individuals contain organ systems

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Organ System

Composed of several organs working together

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Organ

Composed of tissues functioning together for a specific task

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Cell

The structural and functional unit of all living things

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Molecule

Union of two or more atoms of the same or different elements

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Atom

Smallest unit of an element composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons

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Taxonomy

branch of biology that names and classifies species (based on similarities and differences, generally)

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Three Domains

Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya

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Bacteria

Prokaryotic - lacking membrane enclosed nucleus and organelles

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Archaea

Prokaryotic - lacking membrane enclosed nucleus and organelles

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Eukarya

Eukaryotic - characterized by membrane-enclosed nucleus and organelles.

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Taxonomy system of naming

Domain - Kingdom - Phylum - Class - Order - Family - Genus - Species

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Four Kingdoms of Domain Eukarya

Animalia - Plantae - Fungi - Protista