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Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (70)
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Primary function of the Cardiovascular System

Service cells of the body, bringing nutrients to cells and helping to remove waste.

1

How do lymphatic vessels help the cardiovascular system?

Lymphatic vessels help by collecting excess fluid surrounding tissues and returning it to the cardiovascular system.

2

Three Major Components of the Cardiovascular System

Heart
Veins
Arteries

3

Four Functions of the Cardiovascular System

Generates blood pressure and moves blood
Transport blood
Exchange of nutrients and wastes at the capillaries
Regulates blood flow as needed by the body

4

Parts of the Closed Circuit Pathway of the Cardiovascular System

Heart -> Arteries -> Arterioles -> Capillaries -> Venules -> Veins
-> Heart again

5

Arteries

Carry blood away from the heart

6

3 Layers in the wall of an artery

Thin inner epithelium
Thick smooth muscle layer
Outer connective tissue

7

Arterioles

Small arteries that regulate blood pressure

8

Capillaries

Microscopic vessels between arterioles and venules. They form beds of vessels where exchange with body cells (nutrients out, waste materials in) occur, and have a combined large surface area.

9

Precapillary Sphincters

Control blood flow through a capillary bed. They can shut down a blood capillary, and blood then flows through the shunt (direct pass from arteriole to venular). If closed, blood moves to an area where gas exchange is needed. This might happen if it's cold outside - directs blood towards center of body instead of extremities.

10

Veins

Carry blood toward heart. If they carry blood against gravity, they have valves to keep blood flowing toward heart.

11

Venules

Small veins that receive blood from the capillaries.

12

3 layers of Venules and Vein walls

Thin inner epithelium
Smooth muscle layer (less than arteries)
Outer connective tissue (less than arteries)
Overall, thinner than arteries, allowing for greater expansion

13

Heart

Large, muscular organ consisting of mostly cardiac muscle tissue. It runs the cardiovascular system.

14

Myocardium

The cardiac muscle tissue in the heart.

15

Cardiac Muscle Fibers

Branched, uninucleated, striated muscle fibers. Tightly joined by intercalated disks.

16

Intercalated Disks

Disks that hold the cardiac muscle fibers together very tightly so that there is no "leakage" of fluids such as blood.

17

Pericardium

Sac that surrounds the heart.

18

The right and left sides of the heart are separated by what?

The septum

19

Atria

The chambers in the upper half of the heart

20

Ventricles

The chambers in the lower half of the heart

21

2 sets of valves in the heart

Atrioventrical
Semilunar

22

Purpose of heart valves?

Heart valves keep blood flowing in one direction

23

Atrioventricular Valves are between what?

The atria and the ventricles.

24

The Left Atrioventricular valve is what?

Bicuspid

25

The right atrioventricular valve is what?

Tricuspid

26

Superior Vena Cava

Primary vein returning to the heart from the top of the body.

27

Inferior Vena Cava

Primary vein returning to the heart from the bottom of the body.

28

Aorta

Primary artery

29

Process of blood flow through the heart (LONG!)

Inferior and superior vena cava dump blood into the right atrium. The right ventricle then sends the blood into the pulmonary trunk, where two pulmonary arteries lead the blood to the lungs, where the blood becomes oxygenated via capillaries. The pulmonary veins bring blood from the lungs back to the left atrium. The left ventricle then contracts, pumping blood into the aorta and to the rest of the body. It will then be pumped back to each vena cava.