Flashcards in Reproductive System Deck (73)
How many scrotum does a male have?
How many testes does a male have?
Two - called together testis
How many epididymides does a male have?
Two, together called epididymis.
How many vasa deferentia does a male have?
Two, together called vas deferens.
How many urethras does a male have?
Sacs that hold the testes.
What does the scrotum help regulate?
The scrotum helps regulate the temperature of the testes.
Paired organs that produce sperm and male sex hormones.
What are testes composed of?
Testes are composed of seminiferous tubules.
What occurs in seminiferous tubules?
Sperm are produced in the seminiferous tubules.
What is the term for the production of sperm?
Sperm mature and are stored here
Transports sperm to the urethra
Transports sperm out of the body
Name the nine parts of the male reproductive anatomy.
A cap on the head of the sperm which stores enzymes needed to penetrate the egg.
What does the middle piece of the sperm contain?
The middle piece of the sperm contains mitochondria to make ATP.
What is another word for the tail on the sperm, and what does it do?
Flagellum, and it provides movement for the sperm.
Produce a sugary fluid that provides energy for the sperm
Produces an alkaline fluid to help buffer the acidic pH of the vagina
Produce mucus that acts as a lubricant
What is the penis used for?
The penis is used for sexual intercourse and urination.
How does an erection happen?
The erectile tissue that comprises the penis fills with blood during sexual arousal, compressing veins and resulting in an erection.
How does erectile dysfunction occur?
Erectile dysfunction, or impotency, occurs when the erectile tissue does not expand enough to compress the veins.
Tip of the penis, usually covered by foreskin, that is intensely sensitive.
The removal of all or part of the foreskin.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
A hormone that is secreted by the thalamus to control the release of other hormones.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
A hormone that promotes the production of sperm.
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
The luteinizing hormone controls the production of testosterone.
A hormone important for the normal development and functioning of the male reproductive organs.
Name the five parts of the female genital tract.
Name the four parts of the external genitals (female anatomy).
Produce eggs and sex hormones
Move eggs and normal site of fertilization
Normal site of implantation and fetal development
Opening to the uterus that can dilate during childbirth
Birth canal and the copulatory organ of the female
Two large folds of fatty skin
Two small folds just inside the labia major that contain the openings to the urethra and vagina
Fatty skin covered in coarse hair
Erectile organ and site of intense sexual feeling
What does an ovary contain?
An ovary contains many follicles
Located inside the ovary, follicles each contain an immature egg (oocyte)
What is the proper term for an egg (the female gamete)?
How many follicles does a female have at puberty?
How many follicles mature during the lifetime of a female?
About 400 follicles mature during the lifetime of a female.
Menopause is the end of ovarian and uterine cycles
How many follicles mature each month from puberty until menopause?
One follicle matures each month from puberty until menopause.
The monthly release of an oocyte from the ovary when a follicle ruptures.
How long is the uterine cycle?
What occurs on days 1-5 of the uterine cycle?
On days 1-5 of the uterine cycle, low levels of estrogen and progesterone cause the inner uterine lining (endometrium) to disintegrate, and menstruation occurs.
The inner lining of the uterus.
What occurs on days 6-13 of the uterine cycle, and what is this phase called?
This phase of the uterine cycle is called the proliferative phase, and it is when an increase in estrogen causes the endometrium to thicken.
What occurs on day 14 of the uterine cycle?
Day 14 of the uterine cycle is when ovulation usually occurs.
What occurs on days 15-28 of the uterine cycle, and what is this phase called?
This phase of the uterine cycle is called the secretory phase, and it is when, if a woman is impregnated, progesterone causes endometrium to double or triple in thickness in preparation for the developing embryo. If the oocyte has not been fertilized, then the endometrium breaks down.
Union of a sperm and egg nucleus to form a zygote.
Where does fertilization usually occur?
Fertilization usually occurs in an oviduct.
When does pregnancy begin, and when does it normally occur?
Pregnancy begins at implantation, usually six days after fertilization.
Abstinence is not engaging sexual intercourse.
Name three types of hormonal control.
Birth control pills, contraceptive injections of hormones, and contraceptive implants are all hormonal forms of birth control.
How do birth control pills act as a form of birth control?
Birth control pills block hormone release to stop follicular development and ovulation.
How do contraceptive injections of hormones act as a form of birth control?
Contraceptive injections of hormones (progesterone and/or estrogen) stop ovulation.
How do contraceptive implants act as a form of birth control?
Contraceptive implants use synthetic progesterone to prevent ovulation.
What two forms of birth control protect against STDs?
Condoms and abstinence are the only methods of birth control that protect against STDs.
Name the two types of sterilization, and say if they are for males or females.
Vasectomy - males
Tubal Ligation - females
A vasectomy consists of cutting and sealing the vasa deferentia.
Tubal ligation is when the oviducts are cut and sealed.
Name the three types of barrier birth control.
IUDs, condoms, and diaphragm are three barrier methods of birth control.
A small plastic piece inserted into the uterus to prevent implantation.
Condoms, male and female, block fertilization.
A diaphragm is a soft latex cup that covers the cervix so that sperm cannot enter the uterus.
Preven is a morning-after pill that upsets the uterine cycle so an embryo has a hard time implanting. It is 85% effective.