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Flashcards in Nutrition Deficiencies Deck (83)
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31

Vit B5 Deficiency

Dermatitis, enteritis, alopecia, adrenal insufficiency

32

Vit B6

Pyridoxine

33

What is B6 converted into?

Pyridoxal phosphate

34

Vit B6 Function

- Cofactor: transamination (ALT, AST), decarboxylation rxns, glycogen phosphorylase
- Synthesis: cystathionine, heme, niacin, HA, and NT (5HT, Epi, NE, DA, GABA)

35

Vit B6 Deficiency

Convulsions, hyperirritability, peripheral neuropathy

36

What kind of anemia can B6 deficiency cause?

Sideroblastic anemia due to impaired Hb synthesis and iron excess
- Nucleated erythrocytes

37

MCC of B6 deficiency?

- isoniazid therapy for TB

38

Vitamin B7

Biotin

39

Function of B7?

Cofactor for carboxylation E
- Pyruvate carboxylase: pyruvate (3C) --> oxaloacetate (4C) [gluconeogenesis]
- Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: acetyl-CoA (2C) --> malonyl-CoA (3C) [FA synthesis]
- Propionyl-CoA carboxylase: propionyl-CoA (3C) --> methylmalonyl-CoA (4C) [metabolism of odd chain FA]

40

Carboxylase enzymes require what 3 things?

- ATP, biotin, CO2

41

B7 Deficiency?

Dermatitis, alopecia, enteritis

42

Causes of B7 deficiency?

- ABx
- Excessive ingestion of raw egg whites (avidin)

43

Biotinidase Def.

- E involved in recycling biotin
- Presents the same as biotin deficiency
- Newborns screened

44

Vitamin B9

Folate

45

B9 Function
- Leafy green vegetables

- Converted to tetrahydrofolic acid --> 1-carbon transfer/methylation
- Synthesis of nitrogenous bases in DNA & RNA

46

Where is B9 absorbed?

Jejunum

47

B9 reserves?

Small reserve in liver

48

Blood findings on B9 deficiency?

- Macrocytic megaloblastic anemia
- Hypersegmented PMNs

49

B9 deficiency sx?

- Glossitis
- NO NEURO SX

50

B9 deficiency labs?

Increased homocysteine
Normal methylmalonic acid

51

Who gets B9 deficient?
- most common vit deficiency in U.S.

- Alcoholism
- Pregnancy
- Drugs (phenytoin, sulfonamides, MTX)

52

Vitamin B12

Cobalamin

53

Vit B12 Function
- Animal products

- Methionine synthase (transfers CH3 groups as methylcobalamin)
- Methylmalonyl-CoA mutae (odd #C FA metaboilsm)

54

Who needs B12 supplement?

Vegans

55

Who needs B9 supplement?

Pregnant women

56

B12 reserve?

very large pool in liver (several years)

57

B12 deficiency caused by?

- Malabsorption (sprue, enteritis, Diphyllobothrium latum)
- Lack of IF (pernicious anemia [anti-IF Ab], gastric bypass surgery)
- Absence of terminal ileum (surgical resection - Crohn DZ)
- Insufficient intake (veganism)
- Long term omeprazole use

58

B12 deficiency sx?

- Macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia
- Hypersegmented PMNs
- Paresthesias
- Subacute combined degeneration
- Prolonged deficiency --> irreversible nerve damage

59

Subacute combined degeneration?

Abnormal myelin
- Dorsal columns
- Lateral corticospinal trats
- Spinocerebellar tracts

60

Labs in B12 deficiency?

Increased serum homocysteine and methylmalonic acid