Nutrition Deficiencies Flashcards Preview

Step 1 > Nutrition Deficiencies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition Deficiencies Deck (83)
Loading flashcards...
61

Vitamin C Function

- Antioxidant
- Facilitates iron absorption (reduces to Fe2+)
- Hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis
- Necessary for DA beta-hydroxylase (converts DA to NE)

62

What can Vit C treat?

- Ancillary treatment for methemoglobinemia

63

Vit C deficiency?

Scurvy - swollen gums, bruising, petechiae, hemarthrosis, anemia, poor wound healing, perifollicular and subperiosteal hemorrhages, "corkscrew hair
- Weakened immune resopnse
- Fe-deficient anemia

64

Vit C excess?

N/v, diarrhea, fatigue
- Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis
- Increased risk of iron toxicity in predisposed (transfusions, hereditary hemochromatosis)

65

Vit D2

Ergocalciferol
- Plants

66

Vit D3

Cholecalciferol
- Milk, sun (stratum basale)

67

25-OH D3

Storage form (measured in serum)
- Liver

68

1,25-(OH)2D3

Calcitriol - Active form
- PTH regulation
- Kidney

69

Vit D Function

- Increased intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate
- Increased bone mineralization at low levels
- Increased bone resorption at higher levels

70

Vit D Deficiency

Rickets (children), osteomalacia (adults)
- Hypocalcemic tetany

71

Who needs Vit D supplement?

Exclusively breastfed infants

72

What exacerbates Vit D deficiency?

Low sun exposure, pigmented skin, prematurity

73

What causes Vit D deficiency?

Low sunlight, malabsorption, liver/renal DZ, elderly

74

Vit D Excess

- Hypercalcemia, hypercalcuria, loss of appetite, stupor

75

When is Vit D excess seen?

Granulomatous disease
Increased activation of Vit D by epithelioid macrophages

76

Vitamin E

Antioxidant (protects RBCs and membranes from free radical damage)

77

Vit E Deficiency

Hemolytic anemia, acanthocytosis, muscle weakness

78

What part of the spinal cord is affected in Vit E deficiency?

- Posterior column and spinocerebellar tract demyelination
- Neuro presentation similar to B12 deficiency but no megaloblastic anemia, hypersegmented PMNs, or increased serum methylmalonic acid

79

Vit K

Cofactor for gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues on various proteins required for blood clotting

80

Where is Vit K synthesized?

Intestinal flora

81

Who gets vit K deficient?

- Neonates (sterile intestines) - increased PT and PTT, normal BT - given Vit K injection at birth
- Prolonged broad-spectrum ABx (kill gut bacteria)

82

Vit K antagonist?

Warfarin

83

Vit K Deficiency

Easy bruisability, blood in stool, bleeding into joints