Packet 30 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Packet 30 Deck (22):
1

Genes with more than two alternate forms
3 different alleles of the I gene
IA, IB, or i

Multiple-Allele Inheritance

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alleles are codominant since both genes are expressed equally

A and B

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possible genotypes produce 4 blood types

6

4

4 phenotypes of the ABO blood groups are

A, B, AB, O

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Traits controlled by many genes
continuous gradations ofsmall differences
body build, height andskin, hair & eye color

Polygenic Inheritance

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controlled by 3 genes (Aa, Bb, Cc)
person with genotype of AABBCC is dark

person aabbcc is light

parental generation & F1 and F2 generation

skin color

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23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46
--each pair is homologous since contain similar genes in same order
--one member of each pair is from each parent

somatics cells (diploid cells)

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sex chromosomes are either X or Y
females have two X chromosomes
males have an X and a smaller Y chromosome

22 autosomes & 1 pair of sex chromosomes

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single set of chromosomes for a total of 23
produced by special type of division: meiosis

gametes (haploid cells)

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Genes found only on X chromosomes

sex-linked inheritance

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is lack of either red or greencones, so seen as same color
XCXC is normal, XCXc is carrier
XcXc is color blind
XCY is normal, XcY is color blind

red-green color blindness

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is sex-linked traitwhere blood fails to clot

hemophilia

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result of environment effects on genetic makeup
more influential on polygenic traits such as height

phenotype

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cause developmental defects

teratogens

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fetal alcohol syndrome = slow growth, facial features, defective heart & CNS
cocaine = attention problems, hyperirritability, seizures

low birth weight, cleft lip & palate, SIDS


mental retardation, microcephaly

Chemicals & Drugs

Cigarette Smoking

Irradiation or radioisotopes during first trimester

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10% of reproductive age U.S. population
---ovarian disease or obstruction of uterine tubes
---inadequate or excessive body fat

female infertility

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definition is production of adequate quantities of viable, normal sperm & transport through ducts
---seminiferous ducts sensitive to x-rays, infections, toxins, malnutrition & high scrotal temperatures

Male Infertility

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Alternative fertilization techniques

fertilization in a laboratory dish

embryo transfer

gamete intrafallopian transfer

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mother given FSH to produce multiple oocytes (surgically removed)
mixed with solution containing sperm

in vitro fertilization

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16 cell stage placed into uterus

fertilization in a lab dish

21

artificial insemination of oocyte donor
blastocyst transfer to infertile woman for pregnancy

Embryo transfer

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FSH & LH stimulate multiple oocytes---aspiration & fertilization outside the body---reimplantation into uterine tubes (whole procedure is to skip vagina)

Gamete intrafallopian transfer