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Flashcards in packet 17 Deck (43):
1

Respiration controlled by

neurons in pons & medulla

2

ON TEST
where is respiratory center located

respiratory center

3

3 groups of neurons

medullary rhythmicity
pneumotaxic
apneustic centers

4

rhythm of breathing

medullary rythmicity

5

lung movement

pneumotaxic

6

come in to play when stop breathing

apneustic center

7

Controls basic rhythm of respiration
Inspiration for 2 seconds, expiration for 3
Autorhythmic cells active for 2 seconds then inactive
Expiratory neurons inactive during most quiet breathing only active during high ventilation rates

medulaary rthymicity area

8

constant inhibitory impulses to inspiratory area
neurons trying to turn off inspiration before lungs too expanded

Pneumotaxic Area

9

stimulatory signals to inspiratory area to prolong inspiration

Apneustic Area

10

voluntarily alter breathing patterns
limitations are buildup of CO2 & H+ in blood
inspiratory center is stimulated by increase in either
if you hold breathe until you faint----breathing will resume

cortical influences--regulation of respiratory center

11

chemical regulation of respiration

central chemoreceptors in medulla
peripheral chemoreceptors

12

respond to changes in H+ or pCO2
hypercapnia = slight increase in pCO2 is noticed

Central chemoreceptors in medulla

13

respond to changes in H+ , pO2 or PCO2
aortic body---in wall of aorta
nerves join vagus
carotid bodies--in walls of common carotid arteries
nerves join glossopharyngeal nerve

Peripheral chemoreceptors

14

MICRO ESSAY
name 2 conditions that will increase, decrease ventilation rate and depth

Increase
1. voluntary
2. increase body temp
Decrease
1. lower temp
2. pain causes apnea

15

Deficiency of O2 at tissue level

hypoxia

16

low pO2 in arterial blood
high altitude, fluid in lungs & obstructions

hypoxic hypoxia-

17

too little functioning Hb
hemorrhage or anemia

anemic hypoxia-

18

blood flow is too low

ischemic hypoxia-

19

cyanide poisoning
blocks metabolic stages & O2 usage

histotoxic hypoxia-

20

Quick breathing rate response to exercise
input from proprioceptors

Inflation Reflex (Hering-Breurer reflex)
big deep breath stretching receptors produces urge to exhale

Factors increasing breathing rate
emotional anxiety, temperature increase or drop in blood pressure

Apnea or cessation of breathing
by sudden plunge into cold water, sudden pain, irritation of airway

Respiratory Influences & Reflex Behaviors

21

Smoker is easily “winded” with moderate exercise
nicotine constricts terminal bronchioles
carbon monoxide in smoke binds to hemoglobin
irritants in smoke cause excess mucus secretion
irritants inhibit movements of cilia
in time destroys elastic fibers in lungs & leads to emphysema
trapping of air in alveoli & reduced gas exchange

smokers lowered respiratory efficiency

22

is an inflammatory disorder of the airways, which causes attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness
Animals (pet hair or dander)
Dust
Changes in weather
Chemicals in the air or in food
Exercise
Mold
Pollen
Strong emotions (stress)
Smoke

asthma

23

Influenza is a viral infection that affects mainly the nose, throat, bronchi and, occasionally, lungs. High fever, aching muscles, headache and severe malaise, non-productive cough, sore throat and rhinitis
Easily carried from person to person via droplets and small particles produced when infected people cough or sneeze.
Recovery 1-2 weeks. However, in the very young, the elderly, and those with other serious medical conditions, infection can lead to severe complications of the underlying condition, pneumonia and death.

influenza

24

bite, chew, swallow

mouth

25

transport

Pharynx and esophagus-

26

mechanical disruption; absorption of water & alcohol

stomach

27

chemical & mechanical digestion & absorption

small intestine

28

absorb electrolytes & vitamins (B and K)

large intestine

29

defecation

rectum and anus

30

layers of GI tract

Mucosal layer
2. Submucosal layer
3. Muscularis layer
4. Serosa layer

31

layers of mucosa

epithelium
lamina propria
muscularis mucosae

32

stratified squamous(in mouth,esophagus & anus) = tough
simple columnar in the rest
secretes enzymes and absorbs nutrients
specialized cells (goblet) secrete mucous onto cell surfaces
enteroendocrine cells---secrete hormones controlling organ function

epithelium

33

thin layer of loose connective tissue
contains BV and lymphatic tissue

lamina propria

34

thin layer of smooth muscle
causes folds to form in mucosal layer
increases local movements increasing absorption with exposure to “new” nutrients

muscularis mucosae

35

Loose connective tissue
containing BV, glands and lymphatic tissue

Meissner’s plexus---
parasympathetic
innervation
vasoconstriction
local movement by muscularis mucosa smooth muscle

submucosa

36

types of muscularis

skeletal muscle
smooth muscle
auerbach's plexus

37

voluntary control
in mouth, pharynx , upper esophagus and anus
control over swallowing and defecation

skeletal muscle

38

involuntary control
inner circular fibers & outer longitudinal fibers
mixes, crushes & propels food along by peristalsis

smooth muscle

39

both parasympathetic & sympathetic innervation of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers

Auerbach’s plexus (myenteric)--

40

An example of a serous membrane
Covers all organs and walls of cavities not open to the outside of the body
Secretes slippery fluid
Consists of connective tissue covered with simple squamous epithelium

serosa

41

visceral layer covers organs
parietal layer lines the walls of body cavity

peritoneum

42

potential space containing a bit of serous fluid

peritoneal cavity

43

parts of peritoneum

Mesentery
Mesocolon
Lesser omentum
Greater omentum