Packet 33 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Packet 33 Deck (28):
1

Controlled by monthly hormone cycle of anterior pituitary, hypothalamus & ovary
Monthly cycle of changes in ovary and uterus

female reproductive cycle

2

changes in ovary during & after maturation of oocyte

ovarian cycle

3

preparation of uterus to receive fertilized ovum
if implantation does not occur, the stratum functionalis is shed during menstruation

uterine cycle

4

**ON TEST**
secreted by the hypothalamus controls the female reproductive cycle
--stimulates anterior pituitary to secrete FSH & LH

GnRH

5

**ON TEST**
initiates growth of follicles that secrete estrogen
--estrogen maintains reproductive organs

FSH

6

**ON TEST**
stimulates ovulation & promotes formation of the corpus luteum which secretes estrogens, progesterone, relaxin & inhibin
--progesterone prepares uterus for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion
--relaxin facilitates implantation in the relaxed uterus
--inhibin inhibits the secretion of FSH

LH

7

Menstruation lasts for 5 days
First day is considered beginning of 28 day cycle
in ovary and uterus

menstrual phase

8

20 follicles that began to develop 6 days before are now beginning to secrete estrogen
fluid is filling the antrum from granulosa cells

menstrual phase in ovary

9

declining levels of progesterone caused spiral arteries to constrict -- glandular tissue dies
stratum functionalis layer is sloughed off along with 50 to 150 ml of blood

menstrual phase in uterus

10

Lasts from day 6 to 13 (most variable timeline)
In the ovary (follicular phase) and uterus (proliferative phase)

preovulatory phase

11

follicular secretion of estrogen & inhibin has slowed the secretion of FSH
dominant follicles survives to day 6
by day 14, graafian follicle has enlarged & bulges at surface
increasing estrogen levels trigger the secretion of LH

Preovulatory Phase in ovary

12

increasing estrogen levels have repaired & thickened the stratum functionalis to 4-10 mm in thickness

Preovulatory Phase in uterus

13

Rupture of follicle & release of 2nd oocyte on day 14

ovulation

14

High levels of estrogen

GnRH

LH Surge

more GnRH and LH

way more FSH and LH

ruptured follicle/ovulation (corpus hemorrhagicum results)

15

***Potential Micro Essay

Signs of ovulation

Increase in basal body temperature

Increase in libido

Increase in cervical mucus

Cervix softens

Mittelschmerz- = pain

16

Most constant timeline = lasts 14 days
in ovary and uterus

postovulatory phase

17

if fertilization did not occur, corpus albicans is formed
as hormone levels drop, secretion of GnRH, FSH & LH rise

if fertilization did occur, developing embryo secretes human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) which maintains health of corpus luteum & its hormone secretions

Postovulatory Phase in ovary

18

hormones from corpus luteum promote thickening of endometrium to 12-18 mm
-formation of more endometrial glands & vascularization

if no fertilization occurs, menstrual phase will begin

Postovulatory Phase in uterus

19

Physical & emotional distress during the postovulatory (luteal) phase
--disappear at onset of menstruation
Signs & symptoms are variable
--mood swings, depression, headache, fatigue, backache, constipation, breast tenderness, edema
Since occurs only after ovulation, oral contraceptives are an effective treatment
--careful diet & exercise may help

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

20

4 phases of human sexual intercourse

excitement phase
plateau phase
orgasm phase (climax)
resolution

21

produced by parasympathetic NS
engorgement of blood vessels & cardiovascular changes

excitement phase

22

sexual flush to face & chest

rhythmical muscular contractions & pleasure
sympathetic nervous system causes ejaculation

plateau phase of variable duration

orgasm phase (climax)

23

profound relaxation & return to normal
male refractory period where 2nd ejaculation is impossible

resoultion

24

Consistent inability of adult male to hold an erection long enough for sexual intercourse

Causes
psychological or emotional factors
physical factors
diabetes mellitus, vascular disturbances, neurological disturbances, testosterone deficiency, drugs (alcohol, nicotine, antidepressants, tranquilizers,etc)
Viagra causes vasodilation of penile arteries and brings on an erection

Erectile Dysfunction (Impotence)

25

Possible micro essay
Birth Control Methods
(7)

Complete abstinence
Surgical
Hormonal
Mechanical barriers
Periodic abstinence (ovulation schedule)
Coitus interruptus (withdrawal)
Induced abortion

26

progesterone & estrogen combination pill
negative feedback on the anterior pituitary & hypothalamus to prevent secretion of FSH & LH
no follicular development or ovulation
no possible pregnancy
other benefits of the pill
regulate menstrual cycle & reduce endometriosis
Risks increased for smokers
increased chances of blood clot formation
Not recommended for people with liver disease, hypertension, heart disease, migraines

Hormonal Birth Control
Oral contraceptive --- “the pill”

27

worn internally releasing progestin or combination of progestin & estrogen
IUD (Intra-uterine device)
- Small t-shaped device implanted into the uterus – can either function to disrupt egg or sperm, depending on the type.

vaginal ring

28

intramuscular injection of progesterone every 3 months that changes uterine lining & ovum maturation

Depo-Provera