packet 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in packet 9 Deck (35):
1

surfaces are marked by genetically determined glycoproteins & glycolipids
agglutinogens or isoantigens

RBC

2

display only antigen A

type A

3

display only antigen B

type B

4

display both antigens A & B

type AB

5

display neither antigen

type O

6

contains isoantibodies or agglutinins to the A or B antigens not found in your blood

plasma

7

anti-A antibody reacts with

antigen A

8

anti-B antibody reacts with

antigen B

9

People with Rh agglutinogens on RBC surface are

Rh+

10

Antibodies develop only in Rh- blood type & only with exposure to the antigen through

transfusion of positive blood
during a pregnancy with a positive blood type fetus

11

Transfusion reaction upon 2nd exposure to the antigen results in __ of the RBCs in the donated blood

hemolysis

12

People with type __blood called “universal recipients” since have no antibodies in plasma
*only true if cross match the blood for other antigens

AB

13

People with type _ blood cell called “universal donors” since have no antigens on their cells
*theoretically can be given to anyone

O

14

Stoppage of bleeding in a quick & localized fashion when blood vessels are damaged
Prevents hemorrhage (loss of a large amount of blood)

hemostasis

15

methods used for hemostasis

vascular spasm
platelet plug formation
blood clotting (coagulation = formation of fibrin threads)

16

Platelets store a lot of chemicals in granules needed for

platelet plug formation

17

Steps in the process
of platelet plug formation

(1) platelet adhesion (2) platelet release reaction (3) platelet aggregation

18

Platelets stick to exposed collagen underlying damaged endothelial cells in vessel wall

platelet adhesion

19

Platelets activated by adhesion
Extend projections to make contact with each other
Release thromboxane & activate other platelets
Thromboxane is also a vasoconstrictor decreasing blood flow through the injured vessel

platelet release reaction

20

Activated platelets stick together and activate new platelets to form a mass called a platelet plug
Plug reinforced by fibrin threads formed during clotting process

platelet aggregation

21

three pathways of clotting

1. extrinsic pathway
2. intrinsic pathway
3. final common pathway

22

Damaged tissues leak tissue factor (thromboplastin) into bloodstream
Prothrombinase forms in seconds
In the presence of Ca+2, clotting factor X combines with V to form prothrombinase

extrinsic pathway

23

Activation occurs
endothelium is damaged & platelets come in contact with collagen of blood vessel wall
platelets damaged & release phospholipids
Requires several minutes for reaction to occur
Substances involved: Ca+2 and clotting factors XII, X and V

intrinsic pathway

24

Prothrombinase and Ca+2
thrombin

final common pathway

25

catalyze the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin

Prothrombinase and Ca+2

26

in the presence of Ca+2 converts soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin threads
activates fibrin stabilizing factor XIII
positive feedback effects of thrombin
accelerates formation of prothrombinase
activates platelets to release phospholipids

thrombin

27

fat soluble vitamin absorbed if lipids are present
absorption slowed if bile release is insufficient
Required for synthesis of 4 clotting factors by hepatocytes
factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX and X
Produced by bacteria in large intestine

vitamin K for clotting

28

clot (thrombus) forming in an unbroken blood vessel
forms on rough inner lining of BV
if blood flows too slowly (stasis) allowing clotting factors to build up locally & cause coagulation
may dissolve spontaneously or dislodge & travel

thrombosis

29

clot, air bubble or fat from broken bone in the blood
pulmonary embolus is found in lungs

embolus

30

types of intravascular clotting

thrombosis
embolus

31

Inherited deficiency of clotting factors
bleeding spontaneously or after minor trauma
subcutaneous & intramuscular hemorrhaging
nosebleeds, blood in urine, articular bleeding & pain

hemophilia

32

Hemophilia A lacks factor (males only)

factor VIII

33

Hemophilia B lacks factor (males only))

factor IX

34

less severe because alternate clotting activator exists
(males and females)

hemophilia C

35

treatment for hemphilia

transfusions of fresh plasma or concentrates of the missing clotting factor