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Flashcards in packet 7 Deck (35):
1

Cells of the body are serviced by 2 fluids

blood
interstitial fluid

2

composed of plasma and a variety of cells

blood

3

bathes the cell of the body

interstitial fluid

4

Nutrients and oxygen diffuse from the blood into

interstitial fluid & then into the cells

5

function of blood

transportation
regulation
protection from disease and loss of blood

6

Transportation of

O2, CO2, metabolic wastes, nutrients, heat & hormones

7

helps regulate pH through buffers
helps regulate body temperature
coolant properties of water
vasodilatation of surface vessels dump heat
helps regulate water content of cells by interactions with dissolved ions and proteins

regulation

8

Thicker (more viscous) than water and flows more slowly than water
Temperature of 100.4 degrees F
pH 7.4 (7.35-7.45)
8 % of total body weight
Blood volume
5 to 6 liters in average male
4 to 5 liters in average female
hormonal negative feedback systems maintain constant blood volume and osmotic pressure

physical characteristics of blood

9

55% plasma
45% cells
**99%RBC
**

hematocrit

10

7% plasma protein
over 90% water
2% other substance

blood plasma

11

created in liver
confined to bloodstream

7% plasma proteins

12

intain blood osmotic pressure

albumin

13

antibodies bind to foreignsubstances called antigens
form antigen-antibody complexes

globulins (immunoglobulins)

14

for clotting

fibrinogen

15

Formed Elements of Blood

Red blood cells ( erythrocytes )
White blood cells ( leukocytes )
Platelets (special cell fragments)

16

Types of WBC's

grandular leukocytes
agrandular leukocytes

17

grandular leukocytes

neutrophils
eosinophils
basophils

18

agrandular leukocytes

lymphocytes = T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells
monocytes

19

38 - 46% (average of 42%)

40 - 54% (average of 46%)
testosterone

Percentage of blood occupied by cells

female
male

20

not enough RBCs or not enough hemoglobin

anemia

21

too many RBCs (over 65%)
dehydration, tissue hypoxia, blood doping in athletes

polycythemia

22

formation of blood cells

Most blood cells types need to be continually replaced
In the embryo
in adult

23

process of blood cells formation

hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis

24

occurs in yolk sac, liver, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes & red bone marrow

formation of blood cells in embryo

25

occurs only in red marrow of flat bones like sternum, ribs, skull & pelvis and ends of long bones

formation of blood cells in adult

26

Contain oxygen-carrying protein hemoglobin that gives blood its red color
1/3 of cell’s weight is hemoglobin
Biconcave disk 8 microns in diameter
increased surface area/volume ratio
flexible shape for narrow passages
no nucleus or other organelles
no cell division or mitochondrial ATP formation
Normal RBC count
male 5.4 million/drop ---- female 4.8 million/drop
new RBCs enter circulation at 2 million/second

Red blood cells

27

Globin protein consisting of 4 polypeptide chains
One heme pigment attached to each polypeptide chain
each heme contains an iron ion (Fe+2) that can combine reversibly with one oxygen molecule (Fe = ferric + O = oxygen)

hemoglobin

28

Each hemoglobin molecule can carry 4 oxygen molecules from lungs to tissue cells
Hemoglobin transports 23% of total CO2 waste from tissue cells to lungs for release
Hemoglobin transports nitric oxide & super nitric oxide helping to regulate blood pressure
iron ions pick up nitric oxide (NO) & super nitric oxide (SNO)& transport it to & from the lungs

Transport of O2, CO2 and Nitric Oxide

29

transported in blood attached to transferrin protein
stored in liver, muscle or spleen
attached to ferritin or hemosiderin protein
in bone marrow being used for hemoglobin synthesis

Iron(Fe+3)

30

bilirubin secreted by liver into bile
converted to urobilinogen then stercobilin (brown pigment in feces) by bacteria of large intestine
if reabsorbed from intestines into blood is converted to a yellow pigment, urobilin and excreted in urine

biliverdin (green) converted to bilirubin (yellow)

31

high altitude since air has less O2
anemia
RBC production falls below RBC destruction
circulatory problems

Tissue hypoxia (cells not getting enough O2)

32

release erythropoietin
speeds up development of proerythroblasts into reticulocytes

Kidney response to hypoxia

33

Disc-shaped, 2 - 4 micron cell fragment with no nucleus
Normal platelet count is 150,000-400,000/drop of blood
Other blood cell counts
5 million red & 5-10,000 white blood cells

Platelet (Thrombocyte)

34

Short life span (5 to 9 days in bloodstream)
formed in bone marrow
few days in circulating blood
aged ones removed by fixed macrophages in liver and spleen

Platelets--Life History

35

Screens for anemia and infection – components measured?
Total RBC, WBC & platelet counts; differential WBC; hematocrit and hemoglobin measurements
Normal hemoglobin range
infants have 14 to 20 g/100mL of blood
adult females have 12 to 16 g/100mL of blood
adult males have 13.5 to 18g/100mL of blood

complete blood count