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Flashcards in packet 11 Deck (29):
1

release lysozymes which destroy/digest bacteria
release defensin proteins that act like antibiotics & poke holes in bacterial cell walls destroying them
release strong oxidants (bleach-like, strong chemicals ) that destroy bacteria

direct action against bacteria (neutrophil)

2

Granular; 10-12 microns; 60-70% of circulating WBC
Fastest response of all WBC to bacteria

neutrophil

3

Largest WBC; 12-20 microns, 3-8% circulating WBC
Most migrate into tissues, becomes fixed macrophage
Take longer to get to site of infection, but arrive in larger numbers
Become wandering macrophages, once they leave the capillaries
Destroy microbes and clean up dead tissue following an infection

monocyte

4

Granular (lots of histamine!); 8-10 microns

basophil function

5

Granular; 10-12 microns; 2-4% of circulating WBCs
Leave capillaries to enter tissue fluid
Release histaminase
slows down inflammation caused by basophils
Attack parasitic worms
Phagocytize antibody-antigen complexes

eosinophil

6

20-25% circulating WBC
b cells
t cells
natural killer cells

lymphocyte

7

destroy bacteria and their toxins
turn into plasma cells that produces antibodies

B cells (6-9 microns)

8

attack viruses, fungi, transplanted organs, cancer cells & some bacteria

t cells (10-12 microns)

9

attack many different microbes & some tumor cells
destroy foreign invaders by direct attack

Natural killer cells (up to 14 microns)

10

indicates infection, poisoning, leukemia, chemotherapy, parasites or allergy reaction

WBC changes

11

60-70% (up if bacterial infection)

neutrophils

12

20-25% (up if viral infection)

lymphocyte

13

3 -- 8 % (up if fungal/viral infection)

monocytes

14

2 -- 4 % (up if parasite or allergy reaction)

eosinophil

15

basophil

16

bodies ability to defend itself against specific foreign material or organisms
bacteria, toxins, viruses, cat dander, etc.

immunity

17

Differs from nonspecific defense mechanisms
specificity----recognize self & non-self
memory----2nd encounter produces even more vigorous response
Immune system is cells and tissues that produce the immune response
Immunology is the study of those responses

acquired and adaptive immunity

18

mature in thymus

t cells

19

cells in bone marrow

b cells

20

cell-mediated response
killer cells attack antigens
helper cells costimulate T and B cells
effective against fungi, viruses, parasites, cancer, and tissue transplants

t cells

21

antibody-mediated response
plasma cells form antibodies
effective against bacteria

b cells

22

Molecules or bits of foreign material

antigen

23

ability to provoke immune response

immunogenicity

24

ability to react to cells or antibodies it caused to be formed

reactivity

25

enter the bloodstream to be deposited in spleen
penetrate the skin & end up in lymph nodes
penetrate mucous membrane & lodge in associated lymphoid tissue

when antigen get past bodies nonspecific defense

26

smaller substance thatcan not trigger an immuneresponse unless attached tobody protein
lipid of poison ivy

hapten

27

small part of antigen that triggersthe immune response

epitope

28

Large, complex molecules, usually proteins

antigen/epitopes

29

Immune system can recognize and respond to a billion different epitopes -- even artificially made molecules
Explanation for great diversity of receptors is genetic recombination of few hundred small gene segments
Each B or T cell has its own unique set of gene segments that codes its unique antigen receptor in the cell membrane

Diversity of Antigen Receptors