Flashcards in Pathology Deck (311)
Give examples of haemopoietic tissue
Haemopoietic islands in yolk sac and aorta-gonad-mesonephros of embyro
Liver, spleen, kidneys
Which cytokine plays a key role in growth, differentiation and activation of eosinophils?
What is the name of the hormone that controls erythropoiesis?
Where is erythropoietin released from?
What does it stimulate?
Stimulates red bone marrow to produce RBCs
What name is given to juvenile red blood cells?
Which hormone mediates thrombopoiesis? (production of thrombocytes/platelets)
Where is it produced?
What effect does IL-6 (inflammation) and iron deficiency have on platelet production?
When restraining an animal, why should you be quick and avoid the animal struggling?
To avoid platelet clumping and blood clots
What is the function of commensal bacteria?
Where are they found?
Prevent attachment of pathogenic bacteria and hence block their invasion and infection
Found on skin, and mucosal surfaces esp. GI and respiratory tracts
What name is given to the part of an antigen that the immune system recognises?
Which 3 thymic hormones are produced in the cortex of the thymus?
Which cells produce them?
Thymosin, thymulin, thymopoietin
Producxed by reticular epithelial cells
Where does lymph flow?
Red bone marrow, lymphatic tissue and lymphatic vessels
What is the function of plasma?
Carries nutrients and waste products
Which cell is the common precursor for all blood cells?
What does it immediately differentiate into?
Pluripotent stem cell
Lymphoid stem cell or myeloid stem cell
What cells are found in the storage pool?
Which cells are found in the proliferative pool?
Monoblasts, myeloblasts, megakaryoblasts, rubriblasts
Which cells would you find in the maturation pool?
Monocytes, metamyelocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, metarubricytes, reticulocytes, megakaryocytes
What is a metarubricyte?
How are platelets produced?
Fragmentation of megakaryocyte cytoplasm and shedding into blood
A complete haemogram should include which 3 lab tests?
Centrifugation of microhaematocrit tube
Blood smear evaluation
Iron deficiency causes which type of anaemia?
Microlytic anaemia (small erythrocytes)
When does cell division of erythrocytes stop?
When optimal intracellular Hb concentration is reached
Why are smaller red blood cells produced in iron deficiency?
An extra cell division occurs before the critical cytoplasmic Hb concentration is reached that is necessary to stop DNA synthesis and cell division
Where is red bone marrow found in large mammals?
Spine, vertebrae, sternum and hip bones
What doe CFU stand for?
Give rise to blasts which eventually evolve into mature cells
Which cells are granulocytes?
Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
Name the 3 primary growth factors which cause differentiation of granulocytes and monocytes
GM-CSF (granulocyte and monocyte differentiation)
M-CSF (monocyte development)
G-CSF (granulocyte development)
If basophils are seen in circulation, what are they usually seen with?
Describe the regulation of erythropoiesis
Hypoxia due to reduced RBC count, decreased availability of O2 to blood or increased tissue demand for O2.
Kidney releases erythropoietin
This stimulates red bone marrow to produce RBCs
Increases O2 carrying ability of the blood