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Year 2 Semester 2 > Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology Deck (311)
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31

Give examples of haemopoietic tissue

Haemopoietic islands in yolk sac and aorta-gonad-mesonephros of embyro
Bone marrow
Liver, spleen, kidneys

32

Which cytokine plays a key role in growth, differentiation and activation of eosinophils?

IL-5 (interleukin-5)

33

What is the name of the hormone that controls erythropoiesis?

Erythropoietin (Epo)

34

Where is erythropoietin released from?
What does it stimulate?

Kidneys
Stimulates red bone marrow to produce RBCs

35

What name is given to juvenile red blood cells?

Reticulocytes

36

Which hormone mediates thrombopoiesis? (production of thrombocytes/platelets)
Where is it produced?

Thrombopoietin (TPO)
Liver

37

What effect does IL-6 (inflammation) and iron deficiency have on platelet production?

Increases it

38

When restraining an animal, why should you be quick and avoid the animal struggling?

To avoid platelet clumping and blood clots

39

What is the function of commensal bacteria?
Where are they found?

Prevent attachment of pathogenic bacteria and hence block their invasion and infection
Found on skin, and mucosal surfaces esp. GI and respiratory tracts

40

What name is given to the part of an antigen that the immune system recognises?

Epitope

41

Which 3 thymic hormones are produced in the cortex of the thymus?
Which cells produce them?

Thymosin, thymulin, thymopoietin
Producxed by reticular epithelial cells

42

Where does lymph flow?

Red bone marrow, lymphatic tissue and lymphatic vessels

43

What is the function of plasma?

Carries nutrients and waste products
Maintains fluidity

44

Which cell is the common precursor for all blood cells?
What does it immediately differentiate into?

Pluripotent stem cell
Lymphoid stem cell or myeloid stem cell

45

What cells are found in the storage pool?

Mature neutrophils

46

Which cells are found in the proliferative pool?

Monoblasts, myeloblasts, megakaryoblasts, rubriblasts

47

Which cells would you find in the maturation pool?

Monocytes, metamyelocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, metarubricytes, reticulocytes, megakaryocytes

48

What is a metarubricyte?

Nucleated RBC

49

How are platelets produced?

Fragmentation of megakaryocyte cytoplasm and shedding into blood

50

A complete haemogram should include which 3 lab tests?

Centrifugation of microhaematocrit tube
Blood counts
Blood smear evaluation

51

Iron deficiency causes which type of anaemia?

Microlytic anaemia (small erythrocytes)

52

When does cell division of erythrocytes stop?

When optimal intracellular Hb concentration is reached

53

Why are smaller red blood cells produced in iron deficiency?

An extra cell division occurs before the critical cytoplasmic Hb concentration is reached that is necessary to stop DNA synthesis and cell division

54

Where is red bone marrow found in large mammals?

Spine, vertebrae, sternum and hip bones

55

What doe CFU stand for?

Colony-forming unit
Give rise to blasts which eventually evolve into mature cells

56

Which cells are granulocytes?

Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

57

Name the 3 primary growth factors which cause differentiation of granulocytes and monocytes

GM-CSF (granulocyte and monocyte differentiation)
M-CSF (monocyte development)
G-CSF (granulocyte development)

58

If basophils are seen in circulation, what are they usually seen with?

Eosinophils

59

Describe the regulation of erythropoiesis

Hypoxia due to reduced RBC count, decreased availability of O2 to blood or increased tissue demand for O2.
Kidney releases erythropoietin
This stimulates red bone marrow to produce RBCs
Increases O2 carrying ability of the blood

60

How many days does it take from RBC stem cell to reticulocyte release?

5 days