Pharm NT I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharm NT I Deck (50):
1

what are the classes of NT

amino acids
small molecule
peptides
endocannabinoids

2

what are the excitatory aa NT

glutamate and aspartate

3

what are the inhibitory aa NT

GABA and Glycine

4

What are the small molecule transmitters

Ach
Monoamines
histamine

5

what are the monoamines

catecholamines: dopamine and norepi
and serotonin (5-HT)

6

what are the peptide NT

opiods
tachykinins
others

7

what are the opioid NT

enkephalins
endorphins
dynorphins

8

what are the tachykinins

substance P

9

Where are small moleules NT made

in the nerve terminals then loaded into vesicles ATP dependent

10

where are peptides made

cell body and packaged there

11

depolarization to the presynaptic nerve acticates what

vCaCh causing fusion vesicles and release

12

drugs that act in CNS modify what

the chemical synaptic transmission

13

presynaptic sites of drug action include what

NT synthesis, storage, metabolism and release

14

what is the primary postsynaptic site of drug action

NT receptor

15

what are the 3 criteria for classical NT

localization
release
synaptic mimicry

16

what is an exception to the synaptic mimicry rule

sometime more than one substance transmits information so no single agonist or antagonis can mimic stimulation

17

what messengers are not synthesized or stored in presynatpic terminal

endocannabinoids

18

what ion channels modulate neuronal firing rate

Ca and K

19

What are ionotropic R

ligand gated ion channels
causes conformational change that opens channel or closes it

20

what causes EPSP

influx Na or Ca

21

what causes IPSP

efflux of K or influx Cl

22

what NT activate ionotropic R

glutamate
GABA
Ach
Glycine
Serotonin

23

how to metabotropic R work

GPCR that indirectly modulate ion channels

24

major functional effects GPCRs

signal amplification

25

What are the second messengers in GPCRs

adenylate cyclase and cAMP
DAG
IP3
ion Ca K Na or Cl

26

what NT activate metabotropic R

glutamate
GABA
Ach
dopamine
Norepi
Serotonin
Histamine
Neuropeptides
Endocannabinoids

27

does glutamate cross bbb

no
but it is made in brain from glucose

28

what inactivates glutamate

taken up by glial cells and converted to glutamine then transported to glutamatergic nerve cells and converted back to glutamate

29

What R does glutamate activate

ionotropic
non-NMDA and NMDA

30

what R mediate most EPSP in prain

the AMPA or non NMDA
GluR1 2,3,4
ligand gated Na K Ch
glutamate!!!

31

overstimulation NMDA R in brain cause what

Ca influx triggering cell death
especially in ischemia and hypoxia

32

what ion blocks NMDA channels until depolarized

Mg

33

what is PCP

phencyclidine "angel dust" ketamine

34

how does PCP work

noncompetetice antagonist at NMDA R
high does cause dissociative anesthesia

35

R subtypes for the NMDA R

NR1, 2A,2B,2C,2D

36

what metabotropic R does glutamate activate on postsynapse

decrease K conductance increasing IP3 and DAG

37

effects of glutamate on presynaptic GPCR

dec Ca (inhibitiory) dec cAMP

38

what can cause the aura of migraine headaches

excessive glutamate release

39

why is NMDA R antagonist memantine used to Tx severe dementia in alzheimers

glutamade R mediated excitotoxicity may contribute to pathogenesis of the disease

40

synthesis of GABA

locally from glucose, pyruvate, sometimes other aa

41

inactivation GABA

rapid reuptake from plasma membrane transporters
also taken up by glial cells

42

GABAa activates what R

ionotropic
ligand Cl Ch (hyperpolarization IPSP)

43

GABAb

metabotropic
post synaptic (inc K)
presynaptic (dec Ca inhibitory)

44

what balances excitatory activity of glutamate

GABA inhibition

45

GABA dysfunction leads to

hyperexcited states

46

where do benzodiazepines and barbituates work

GABAa
so enhance inhibitory effects of GABA

47

what are the benzodiazepines

alpazolam
diazepam
midazolam
clonazepam

48

benzodiazepines are used to Tx

anxiety disorder, panic, sedation and sleep disorders

49

what is phenobarbital

barbituate

50

what is phenobarbital used for

sedative hypnotics and antiepileptics