Flashcards in Pharm1E1 Cholinergic Antagonists & NM Drugs Deck (57)
ganglionic blockade- all ganglia blocked bc all are ?, so the ? in ANS is prevented; drug?
inversine- DOES access the CNS
effect of inversine is opposite to the ?
all tone is PNS except for ?
dominant ANS tone
arterioles (S), veins (S), sweat glands (S), and G/U (both)
bv are dominant via SNS vasoconstrictor actions so mecamylamine (inversine) results in ? bc ?
the postural reflexes that prevent venous pooling are blocked
on heart vagal tone dominates so ganglionic blockade >> ?
mecamylamine (inversine) indicated for moderate to severe ? and is an orphan drug by FDA for ?
*also used for ADHD, drug withdrawal, reducing bleeding during surgery
inversine rarely used by can lower BP in emergency cases of ?
acute dissecting aortic aneurysm
NM blocking drugs are used as adjuncts to ?
nicotinic receptor antagonists are ? agents
depolarizing agents activate ? i.e. ?
nicotinic receptors, succinylcholine
non depolarizing are given either ? or ? but are inactive if given?
IM, IV, orally
longer actings non depolarizing blockade drugs?
**difficult to reverse blockade!
PANcuronium (120-180hrs)- pan = all so it needs a long time!
shorter acting non depolarizing blockade drugs?
atracurium (30-60 min), mivacurium (12-18 min)
rapid onset, low potency, intermediate duration?
nondepolarizing blocking drugs produce flaccid paralysis of muscle by inhibiting the ?
binding of ACh to nAChRs on muscle fibers
? can slightly block ganglionic neuronal nicotinic Ach receptors
used in patients w/ multi system organ failure b/c their metabolism is independent of renal and hepatic function
has the fastest onset and is a useful alternative to succinylcholine for tracheal intubation?
tubocurarine produces ? due to stimulation of ? release and at high concentrations ganglionic blockade
has a moderate increase in HR and CO due to blockade of cardiac muscarinic receptors?
? and ? can be used to ANTAGONIZE NM blockade
? and ? can increase NM blockade
Ca channel blockers, anesthetics i.e. isoflurane
two molecules of Ach bind to the receptors a ? in the receptor results in the opening of an ion channel which allows the passage of ? into the cell causing membrane depolarization
in succinylcholine initially the muscles display disorganized ? which is followed by ?
despite repolarization the membrane cannot be ? as long as succinylcholine is present- resembles ? of the nAChRs
With succinylcholine, ? results if a second dose is given ? minutes after the first
during prolonged muscle depolarization, excessive ? is lost and significant Na, Cl, and Ca are gained by the muscle. excessive damage to the soft tissue the K released can cause significant ? occasionally causing cardiac arrest