Flashcards in Physiology - General Deck (115):
_____ fluid is found outside of the cells which includes intravascular and interstitial compartments. Accounts for 20% of all body weight.
____ fluid is found inside of cells.
______ fluid is fluid OUTSIDE cells and INSIDE blood vessels.
______ fluid is OUTSIDE of cells and OUTSIDE of vessels.
___% of fluid is interstitial.
____% of fluid is intravascular.
An adult human is comprised of ____% of water.
____ is the movement of water through semipermeable membranes.
In osmosis, _______ energy is needed and water moves from a ___ concentration to _________ concentration.
No; Low; High
_____ is the liquid of a solution.
_____ is the substance within a solution.
_____ is movement of solvent.
Partial pressures are found?
Measuring gases dissolved in liquid
pAO2 should be?
pACO2 should be?
A _____ solution has a higher concentration of solute than that inside of the cell.
A hypertonic solution causes cells to ______.
A ____ solution is one in which the solute concentration is lower than that inside of the cell.
A hypotonic solution causes cells to ____.
An _____ solution has equal molecules inside and outside of cells.
_____ fluid makes up 40% of total body weight.
Sodium bicarb and D50 are examples of ____ solutions.
0.45% NS and D5W are examples of _____ solutions.
____ is a bicarbonate isotonic solution.
Diffusion is a ____ process.
____ moves particles from area of higher concentration to lower concentration.
What are the two types of carrier molecules?
What are the two types of mediated transport?
Active transport is a carrier-mediated process that moves substances from areas of ____ concentration to _____.
Active transport works ___ gradient.
Diffusion is faster than?
Active transport is faster than?
______ is a carrier-mediated process that moves substances into and out of cells from high to low concentrations.
Three drugs given to treat pulmonary edema
_______ is the #1 plasma protein made in liver.
What is the main function of albumin?
Prevents collapse of blood vessels and is oncotic (pulls fluid back into vessels)
Where is parasympathetic tone only found in the heart?
Where is sympathetic tone found in the heart?
Both artia and ventricles
Hydrostatic pressure is related to?
Increase in hydrostatic pressure results in?
Leakage into interstitial to lungs
Pulmonary edema is a result of hydrostatic or osmotic pressure?
___ is a substance which is too large to cross cell membrane (EX: albumin).
____ is a substance which can easily cross cell membrane (EX: sodium).
Plasma protein albumin creates ______ pressure.
+1 piting edema depresses __ inches.
+2 pitting edema depresses ___ inches.
1/4 - 1/2
+3 pitting edema depresses _ inches.
1/2 - 1 inch
+4 pitting edema depresses ___ inches.
_____ follows osmotic gradient established by changes in sodium concentration.
____ is the major extracellular cation of the body.
Where are baroreceptors found?
Heart and great vessels.
What substances directly inhibit ADH?
Alcohol and caffeine
Release of ADH is initiated by?
Increase in plasma osmolality (increase of albumin)
Decrease in circulating blood volume
Lowered venous and arterial pressure
When are baroreceptors tripped?
With a decrease in blood pressure
Aldosterone is secreted from where in the body?
____ are positively charged ion.
___ are negatively charged ions.
___ is the #1 extracellular anion.
What is the most common cause of hypokalemia?
Aldosterone is secreted when?
When sodium levels are low or potassium levels are high
What happens to potassium when sodium is absorbed?
Potassium is eliminated
When and where is renin secreted?
Secreted by the kidneys when perfusion in kidneys is decreased
What hormone is created secondary to renin?
What is the function of angiotension II?
What is the function of an ace inhibitor?
Ace inhibitor blocks creation of angiotension 1 & 2
Ace inhibitors end in?
Angiotension II stimulates production of?
What is first given for dehydration?
What is the major intracellular cation?
Why is potassium required within the body?
What are the causes of hypokalemia?
Poor absorption, vomiting, diarrhea, renal disease, diuretics
What are the signs and symptoms of hypokalemia?
Weakness, dysrhythmias, decreased reflexes, faints heart sounds, hypotension, anorexia, vomiting
_____ is an increase of potassium.
What causes hyperkalemia?
Renal failure, burns, crush injuries, infections, excessive use, acidosis
What is the treatment for hyperkalemia?
Calcium is essential for?
Cell membrane permeability
What are the causes of hypocalcemia?
Parathyroid dysfunction, renal disease, malapsorbtion
What are the signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia?
Cramps, seizures, muscle twitching
What is the treatment for hypocalcemia?
Calcium chloride, vitamin D
What are the causes of hypercalcemia?
Tumors, excess vitamin D, diuretics
What are the signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia?
Muscle weakness, renal stones, altered mental status, bone pain
What is the treatment for hypercalcemia?
Diuresis with furosemide and NS
What is the function of magnesium?
Activates enzymes - nerve impulses
Which electrolyte "locks down" cell membranes?
Magnesium is given to?
Seizures, VTACH, labor contractions
Hypomagnesemia is caused by?
Alcoholism, diabetes, malabsorption, starvation, diarrhea, diuresis
What are the signs and symptoms of hypomagnesemia?
Tremors, nausea, vomiting, confusion
What is the most effective treatment for hypermagnesemia?
Cardiac output depends on which factors?
Strength of contraction
Rate of contraction
Amount of venous return (preload)
What is preload?
Blood that fills heart from vena cavas
What is chronotropic?
Preload is only affected by?
Rate and force
What are the three factors for adequate perfusion?
Rate, force, vasoconstriction
How does vasoconstriction of blood vessels affect preload?
What are the negative feedback mechanisms?
CNS ischemic response
Reabsorption of tissue fluids
Splenic discharge of stored blood
When do baroreceptors not work?
When cold or systolic is below 50
Baroreceptors maintain which vital sign?
Where are peripheral chemoreceptors located?
Carotid and aortic bodies
True or False - Chemoreceptors regulate acid?
What is the adrenal-medullary mechanism?
Epinephrine and norepinephrine release
Increased heart rate and stroke volume
What is the compensatory mechanism of the spleen?
Discharge of blood that can be released after vasoconstriction
What are the types of shock?
What is an antigen?
Substance which trips immune system
What is the function of B lymphocytes?
Memory of illness
What is IgG?
Is the #1 antibody
What is IgE?
Immediate hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis)
Alpha and beta
Alpha 1 stimulates?
Vasoconstriction of smooth muscle
_____% of fluid inside the body is intracellular.
____% of fluid in cells is extracellular.
When arterial blood pressure is normal AV shunts _____.
If arterial blood pressure is increased AV shunts ______.