Physiology - General Flashcards Preview

Exam 1/2 Anatomy and Physiology > Physiology - General > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiology - General Deck (115):
1

_____ fluid is found outside of the cells which includes intravascular and interstitial compartments. Accounts for 20% of all body weight.

Extracellular

2

____ fluid is found inside of cells.

Intracellular

3

______ fluid is fluid OUTSIDE cells and INSIDE blood vessels.

Intravascular

4

______ fluid is OUTSIDE of cells and OUTSIDE of vessels.

Interstitial

5

___% of fluid is interstitial.

16

6

____% of fluid is intravascular.

4

7

An adult human is comprised of ____% of water.

50-60

8

____ is the movement of water through semipermeable membranes.

Osmosis

9

In osmosis, _______ energy is needed and water moves from a ___ concentration to _________ concentration.

No; Low; High

10

_____ is the liquid of a solution.

Solvent

11

_____ is the substance within a solution.

Solute

12

_____ is movement of solvent.

Osmosis

13

Partial pressures are found?

Measuring gases dissolved in liquid

14

pAO2 should be?

80-100

15

pACO2 should be?

35-45

16

A _____ solution has a higher concentration of solute than that inside of the cell.

Hypertonic

17

A hypertonic solution causes cells to ______.

Shrink

18

A ____ solution is one in which the solute concentration is lower than that inside of the cell.

Hypotonic

19

A hypotonic solution causes cells to ____.

Swell

20

An _____ solution has equal molecules inside and outside of cells.

Isotonic

21

_____ fluid makes up 40% of total body weight.

Intracellular

22

Sodium bicarb and D50 are examples of ____ solutions.

Hypertonic

23

0.45% NS and D5W are examples of _____ solutions.

Hypotonic

24

____ is a bicarbonate isotonic solution.

LR

25

Diffusion is a ____ process.

Passive

26

____ moves particles from area of higher concentration to lower concentration.

Diffusion

27

What are the two types of carrier molecules?

Proteins
Glucose

28

What are the two types of mediated transport?

Active
Facilitated

29

Active transport is a carrier-mediated process that moves substances from areas of ____ concentration to _____.

Lower; higher

30

Active transport works ___ gradient.

Against

31

Diffusion is faster than?

Osmosis

32

Active transport is faster than?

Diffusion

33

______ is a carrier-mediated process that moves substances into and out of cells from high to low concentrations.

Facilitated diffusion

34

Three drugs given to treat pulmonary edema

Lasix
Nitro
Morphine

35

_______ is the #1 plasma protein made in liver.

Albumin

36

What is the main function of albumin?

Prevents collapse of blood vessels and is oncotic (pulls fluid back into vessels)

37

Where is parasympathetic tone only found in the heart?

Atria

38

Where is sympathetic tone found in the heart?

Both artia and ventricles

39

Hydrostatic pressure is related to?

Blood pressure

40

Increase in hydrostatic pressure results in?

Leakage into interstitial to lungs

41

Pulmonary edema is a result of hydrostatic or osmotic pressure?

Hydrostatic

42

___ is a substance which is too large to cross cell membrane (EX: albumin).

Colloid

43

____ is a substance which can easily cross cell membrane (EX: sodium).

Crystalloid

44

Plasma protein albumin creates ______ pressure.

Osmotic

45

+1 piting edema depresses __ inches.

1/4

46

+2 pitting edema depresses ___ inches.

1/4 - 1/2

47

+3 pitting edema depresses _ inches.

1/2 - 1 inch

48

+4 pitting edema depresses ___ inches.

1+ inches

49

_____ follows osmotic gradient established by changes in sodium concentration.

Water

50

____ is the major extracellular cation of the body.

Sodium

51

Where are baroreceptors found?

Heart and great vessels.

52

What substances directly inhibit ADH?

Alcohol and caffeine

53

Release of ADH is initiated by?

Increase in plasma osmolality (increase of albumin)
Decrease in circulating blood volume
Lowered venous and arterial pressure

54

When are baroreceptors tripped?

With a decrease in blood pressure

55

Aldosterone is secreted from where in the body?

Adrenal cortex

56

____ are positively charged ion.

Cation

57

___ are negatively charged ions.

Anions

58

___ is the #1 extracellular anion.

Chloride

59

What is the most common cause of hypokalemia?

Diuretic use

60

Aldosterone is secreted when?

When sodium levels are low or potassium levels are high

61

What happens to potassium when sodium is absorbed?

Potassium is eliminated

62

When and where is renin secreted?

Secreted by the kidneys when perfusion in kidneys is decreased

63

What hormone is created secondary to renin?

Angiotension II

64

What is the function of angiotension II?

Vasoconstriction

65

What is the function of an ace inhibitor?

Ace inhibitor blocks creation of angiotension 1 & 2

66

Ace inhibitors end in?

Pril

67

Angiotension II stimulates production of?

ADH

68

What is first given for dehydration?

NS 0.9%

69

What is the major intracellular cation?

Potassium

70

Why is potassium required within the body?

Electrical impulses

71

What are the causes of hypokalemia?

Poor absorption, vomiting, diarrhea, renal disease, diuretics

72

What are the signs and symptoms of hypokalemia?

Weakness, dysrhythmias, decreased reflexes, faints heart sounds, hypotension, anorexia, vomiting

73

_____ is an increase of potassium.

Hyperkalemia

74

What causes hyperkalemia?

Renal failure, burns, crush injuries, infections, excessive use, acidosis

75

What is the treatment for hyperkalemia?

Insulin

76

Calcium is essential for?

Neuromuscular transmission
Cell membrane permeability
Hormone secretion
Bone growth
Muscle contraction

77

What are the causes of hypocalcemia?

Parathyroid dysfunction, renal disease, malapsorbtion

78

What are the signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia?

Cramps, seizures, muscle twitching

79

What is the treatment for hypocalcemia?

Calcium chloride, vitamin D

80

What are the causes of hypercalcemia?

Tumors, excess vitamin D, diuretics

81

What are the signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia?

Muscle weakness, renal stones, altered mental status, bone pain

82

What is the treatment for hypercalcemia?

Diuresis with furosemide and NS

83

What is the function of magnesium?

Activates enzymes - nerve impulses

84

Which electrolyte "locks down" cell membranes?

Magnesium

85

Magnesium is given to?

Seizures, VTACH, labor contractions

86

Hypomagnesemia is caused by?

Alcoholism, diabetes, malabsorption, starvation, diarrhea, diuresis

87

What are the signs and symptoms of hypomagnesemia?

Tremors, nausea, vomiting, confusion

88

What is the most effective treatment for hypermagnesemia?

Hemodialysis

89

Cardiac output depends on which factors?

Strength of contraction
Rate of contraction
Amount of venous return (preload)

90

What is preload?

Blood that fills heart from vena cavas

91

What is chronotropic?

Rate

92

What inotrophic?

Force

93

Preload is only affected by?

Rate and force

94

What are the three factors for adequate perfusion?

Rate, force, vasoconstriction

95

How does vasoconstriction of blood vessels affect preload?

Preload decreases

96

What are the negative feedback mechanisms?

Baroreceptor
Chemoreceptor
CNS ischemic response
Hormonal
Reabsorption of tissue fluids
Splenic discharge of stored blood

97

When do baroreceptors not work?

When cold or systolic is below 50

98

Baroreceptors maintain which vital sign?

BP

99

Where are peripheral chemoreceptors located?

Carotid and aortic bodies

100

True or False - Chemoreceptors regulate acid?

True

101

What is the adrenal-medullary mechanism?

Epinephrine and norepinephrine release
Increased heart rate and stroke volume
Vasoconstriction

102

What is the compensatory mechanism of the spleen?

Discharge of blood that can be released after vasoconstriction

103

What are the types of shock?

Hypovolemic
Cardiogenic
Neurogenic
Anaphylactic
Septic

104

What is an antigen?

Substance which trips immune system

105

What is the function of B lymphocytes?

Memory of illness

106

Immunoglobulins are?

Antibodies

107

What is IgG?

Is the #1 antibody

108

What is IgE?

Immediate hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis)

109

Catecholamines stimulate?

Alpha and beta

110

Alpha 1 stimulates?

Vasoconstriction of smooth muscle

111

_____% of fluid inside the body is intracellular.

40

112

____% of fluid in cells is extracellular.

20

113

When arterial blood pressure is normal AV shunts _____.

Close

114

If arterial blood pressure is increased AV shunts ______.

Open

115

Plasma pressure proteins move fluid via?

Osmotic pressure