Flashcards in Portugal/Port/Other Fortified Wines Deck (51):
What is the climate in Portugal?
Mostly warm to hot
What is the top white/red grapes in Portugal?
Red: Touriga Nacional, Baga
What are the top regions/wines for table wines in Portugal?
What are the top fortified and dessert wines in Portugal?
Describe where Portugal is located.
On the western coastline of the Iberian Peninsula, borders the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south, and Spain to the east and north.
What is unique about Portugal?
Portugese winemakers developed their own methods
Style of wine vary greatly from rest of Europe
What are the wine laws of Portugal called?
DOC Denominacao de Origem Controlada
(4 quality classifications based on the French AOC system)
Denominacao de Origem Controlada
Strictest Regulations, Top Quality Classification
Indicacao de Provenicencia Regulamentada
Temporary Classification for Higher Quality Regions Seeking DOC Status
Better Quality Classification with Looser Restrictions "Regional Wines"
Vinho de Mesa
Lowest Quality Classification with Loosest Restrictions "table wines"
Wine of very high quality, aged for a specified period longer than minimal regional standards
Describe Touriga Nacional from Portugal
Used in blending top-quality Ports
Hearty and rustic
Full-bodied, fruit-rich, tannic wines
Describe Baga from Portugal
Most widely grown grape
Grown in Bairrada
(AKA Tinto Bairrada)
Biting astringency from high tannins, flavors of clay, dark fruit
Describe Alvarinho from Portugal
(Known in Spain as Albarino)
Light Bodied wines, moderate acidity and alcohol (lots of fruit flavors - peaches, citrus, kiwi, melon)
What is the terroir of Portugal?
Rugged country, Mountainess, with Rivers and Valleys, Generous rainfall, ripening periods are long and hot
What are the important DOCs of Portugal?
Describe the Douro
Terroir: Douro River from Spain/Steep Slopes
Grape: Touriga Nacional
Wine: Full Bodied Reds
Also covered by Porto DOC - home to Port
Named for Dao River
Terroir: Mountainess Region (protects vineyards from extreme heat/cold)
Grapes: Touriga Nacional, several others
Trending: smaller, quality wines
Terroir: Clay (Barros means "clay" - in the name), Atlantic Coastline
Wine: Dry Red, long-aging tannic reds
Translation: "green wine" (should be consumed in youth)
Wine: Crisp whites, slight spritz of carbonation
What is the story behind the style of Port wine?
Douro - wine region
1600s - port style produced
England at war with France
English cut off from their supply of French wine
English wanted wine from Douro
Whens hipped, didn't survive ocean voyage
(Dry wines turned bad, sweet wines refermented)
Barrels would explode from pressure
High-proof brandy added to stabilize the wines
Where is Port produced?
The Douro valley in Portugal
What is the climate in Douro?
What are the top red grapes in Douro?
What are the two main styles of Port?
What is Bottle-Aged Port called?
What are the styles of Wood-Aged Port?
Aged Tawny Port
Late-bottled vintage (LBV) Port
How is Port made?
During fermentation, Port is fortified with high-proof brandy. This spikes the alcohol content up to 20% or higher, killing the yeast and retaining the residual sugar of the grapes.
154 proof brandy used in the process of making Port
Describe Bottle Aged Ports
Aged 1-2 years in barrels
Then aged for decades in bottle
(Oxygen slowly mellows and matures)
Flavors: deeper red color, and ripe fruit
Describe Wood-Aged Ports
Aged in barrels until they are ready for consumption
Will appear more amber in color BECAUSE of massive oxidation from barrels
Flavors: dried fruit, caramelized sugar
Describe Ruby Port
most widely produced
named for color
aged 2-3 years
ripe berry, jam flavors
Describe Tawny Port
non-vintage means aged 3 years
Describe Aged tawny Port
aged in barrel long periods
labeled by average age of their components
do not require additional bottle aging
Describe Late-bottled vintage (LBV) Port
Made in good (not great) years
Longer barrel aging (4-6 years)
do not require additional bottle aging
Describe Vintage Port
Very best years - a port house might produce a vintage port
Best grapes, top vineyards
Short barrel aging
Wines mature for decades
Highest-quality style of Port
Where is the home of Madeira?
Island of Madeira
350 miles west of Morocco (N. Africa) , Atlantic Ocean
How did Madeira wines become popular?
A stop on shipping routes during the Age of Discovery and colonial era
Produced fortified wines routinely purchased by ships
Ability to survive rough conditions
Especially popular in New England
Used to toast the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776
What is interesting about Madeira wines that were stored on ships?
Oxidation accelerated when they were stored in casks on ships
Darkened and flavored wine
Tropical temps (b/c they went past equator) would cook the wine
led to a nutty, rich, burnt-caramel flavor
would destroy most wines but improved madeira
winemakers would pay to have their wines carried on a ship
What is the climate of Madeira?
Southern latitude, extremely warm/hot climate
What are the top white grapes and also four styles of Madeira?
Wine is named after the grape that makes up 85% of the wine: