Portugal/Port/Other Fortified Wines Flashcards Preview

Cert. Somm Exam > Portugal/Port/Other Fortified Wines > Flashcards

Flashcards in Portugal/Port/Other Fortified Wines Deck (51):
1

What is the climate in Portugal?

Mostly warm to hot

2

What is the top white/red grapes in Portugal?

White: Alvarinho
Red: Touriga Nacional, Baga

3

What are the top regions/wines for table wines in Portugal?

Douro
Dao
Bairrada
Vinho Verde

4

What are the top fortified and dessert wines in Portugal?

Port
Madeira

5

Describe where Portugal is located.

On the western coastline of the Iberian Peninsula, borders the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south, and Spain to the east and north.

6

What is unique about Portugal?

Isolated
Portugese winemakers developed their own methods
Style of wine vary greatly from rest of Europe

7

What are the wine laws of Portugal called?

DOC Denominacao de Origem Controlada
(4 quality classifications based on the French AOC system)

8

Denominacao de Origem Controlada

Strictest Regulations, Top Quality Classification

9

Indicacao de Provenicencia Regulamentada

Temporary Classification for Higher Quality Regions Seeking DOC Status

10

Vinho Regional

Better Quality Classification with Looser Restrictions "Regional Wines"

11

Vinho de Mesa

Lowest Quality Classification with Loosest Restrictions "table wines"

12

Vinho tinto

Portugal
Red wine

13

Vinho branco

Portugal
White wine

14

Vino rosado

Portugal
Rose wine

15

Maduro

Portugal
Old

16

Seco

Portugal
Dry'

17

Doce

Portugal
Sweet

18

Colheita

Portugal
Vintage

19

Garrafeira

Wine of very high quality, aged for a specified period longer than minimal regional standards
Portugal

20

Quinta

Winery/Estate
Portugal

21

Describe Touriga Nacional from Portugal

Red
Used in blending top-quality Ports
Hearty and rustic
Full-bodied, fruit-rich, tannic wines

22

Describe Baga from Portugal

Most widely grown grape
Grown in Bairrada
(AKA Tinto Bairrada)
Biting astringency from high tannins, flavors of clay, dark fruit

23

Describe Alvarinho from Portugal

White
Northern Portugal
(Known in Spain as Albarino)
Light Bodied wines, moderate acidity and alcohol (lots of fruit flavors - peaches, citrus, kiwi, melon)

24

What is the terroir of Portugal?

Rugged country, Mountainess, with Rivers and Valleys, Generous rainfall, ripening periods are long and hot

25

What are the important DOCs of Portugal?

Douro
Dao
Bairrada
Vinho Verde

26

Describe the Douro

DOC
Terroir: Douro River from Spain/Steep Slopes
Grape: Touriga Nacional
Wine: Full Bodied Reds
Also covered by Porto DOC - home to Port

27

Dao

DOC
Named for Dao River
Terroir: Mountainess Region (protects vineyards from extreme heat/cold)
Grapes: Touriga Nacional, several others
Trending: smaller, quality wines

28

Bairrada

DOC
Terroir: Clay (Barros means "clay" - in the name), Atlantic Coastline
Grape: Baga
Wine: Dry Red, long-aging tannic reds

29

Vinho Verde

DOC
Location: Northwestern
Translation: "green wine" (should be consumed in youth)
Grape: Alvarinho
Wine: Crisp whites, slight spritz of carbonation

30

What is the story behind the style of Port wine?

Douro - wine region
1600s - port style produced
England at war with France
English cut off from their supply of French wine
English wanted wine from Douro
Whens hipped, didn't survive ocean voyage
(Dry wines turned bad, sweet wines refermented)
Barrels would explode from pressure
High-proof brandy added to stabilize the wines

31

Where is Port produced?

The Douro valley in Portugal

32

What is the climate in Douro?

Warm/hot

33

What are the top red grapes in Douro?

Touriga Nacional
Touriga Frencesa
Tinta Roriz
Tinta Barroca
Tinto Cao

34

What are the two main styles of Port?

Bottle-Aged
Wood-Aged

35

What is Bottle-Aged Port called?

Vintage Port

36

What are the styles of Wood-Aged Port?

Ruby Port
Tawny Port
Aged Tawny Port
Late-bottled vintage (LBV) Port

37

How is Port made?

During fermentation, Port is fortified with high-proof brandy. This spikes the alcohol content up to 20% or higher, killing the yeast and retaining the residual sugar of the grapes.

38

Aguardente

154 proof brandy used in the process of making Port

39

Describe Bottle Aged Ports

Aged 1-2 years in barrels
Then aged for decades in bottle
(Oxygen slowly mellows and matures)
Flavors: deeper red color, and ripe fruit

40

Describe Wood-Aged Ports

Aged in barrels until they are ready for consumption
Will appear more amber in color BECAUSE of massive oxidation from barrels
Flavors: dried fruit, caramelized sugar

41

Describe Ruby Port

most widely produced
simple, basic
named for color
aged 2-3 years
ripe berry, jam flavors

42

Describe Tawny Port

non-vintage means aged 3 years
caramel flavors

43

Describe Aged tawny Port

aged in barrel long periods
labeled by average age of their components
do not require additional bottle aging

44

Describe Late-bottled vintage (LBV) Port

Made in good (not great) years
Longer barrel aging (4-6 years)
do not require additional bottle aging

45

Describe Vintage Port

Very best years - a port house might produce a vintage port
Best grapes, top vineyards
Short barrel aging
Wines mature for decades
Highest-quality style of Port

46

Where is the home of Madeira?

Island of Madeira
350 miles west of Morocco (N. Africa) , Atlantic Ocean

47

How did Madeira wines become popular?

A stop on shipping routes during the Age of Discovery and colonial era
Produced fortified wines routinely purchased by ships
Ability to survive rough conditions
Especially popular in New England
Used to toast the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776

48

What is interesting about Madeira wines that were stored on ships?

Oxidation accelerated when they were stored in casks on ships
Darkened and flavored wine
Tropical temps (b/c they went past equator) would cook the wine
led to a nutty, rich, burnt-caramel flavor
would destroy most wines but improved madeira
winemakers would pay to have their wines carried on a ship

49

What is the climate of Madeira?

Southern latitude, extremely warm/hot climate

50

What are the top white grapes and also four styles of Madeira?

Wine is named after the grape that makes up 85% of the wine:
Bual
Malvasia
Verdelho
Sercial

51

How is Madeira produced today?

Torturous conditions meant to mimic the ocean voyages
1) Fortified
a) During Fermentation (sweet)
b) After Fermentation (dry)
2) Casks Stored without temp. control (years/decades)
3) Slowly maderize
4) Can last for months, once opened