Pouches and clefts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pouches and clefts Deck (22):
1

what are pouches

invaginations of endoderm in the lateral walls of the pharynx

2

1st pouch

tympanic cavity

3

2nd pouch

palatine tonsil

4

3rd pouch

parathyroid and thymus

5

4th pouch

parathyroid gland and parafollicular cells of thyroid

6

what is an ectopic thymus

thymus remains in the neck

7

1st cleft

external auditory meatus and tympanic membrane

8

which arch proliferates to overgrow the 3rd and 4th arches

2nd

9

which clefts lose contact with the exterior forming the cervical sinus

2nd 3rd and 4th

10

what is the most common congenital disease of the neck

branchial cleft anomolies (cysts- adults, fistulas/sinuses- children)

11

whre are branchial cleft anomolies found

anterior to sternocleidomastoid

presume cancerous until proven otherwise

12

what is the function of hox genes

rostrocaudal patterning

13

what pouches dont form properly in digeorge

3rd and 4th pouches

14

what gene is involved in width of facial features

Sonic hedgehog

15

what problems can arise from SHH malfuncion

cyclopia
holoprosencephalon
diprosopus

16

what is craniosynostosis

fgf gene signalling activates bone calcification and reduces cell proliferation in the mesenchyme causing premature fusion

this causes brachycephaly and a misformed head

17

what is Irf6

craniofacial defects
epidermis defects

18

what genes are involved in cleft lip

PHF8 siderius x linked mental retardation

irf6 in van der woude and non syndromic

19

what structure flips above the tongue

palatine shelf

20

what can cause thyroid dysgenesis

pax8 and titf1

21

describe the somatopy in the NTS

ant tongue
post tongue
epiglottis
carotid sinus and body
aortic arch
(commisural nuceus for cardiovascular reflexes)

22

what are the tongu swellings

lateral lingual
copula
epiglottal