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Flashcards in Practice 7 Deck (60):
1

what are the branches of the maxillary artery

mandibular, pterygoid and pterygopalatine

2

describe the course of the maxillary artery

the larger of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery, arises behind the neck of the mandible, and is at first imbedded in the substance of the parotid gland; it passes forward between the ramus of the mandible and the sphenomandibular ligament, and then runs, either superficial or deep to the lateral pterygoid muscle, to the pterygopalatine fossa.

It supplies the deep structures of the face

3

what does the external carotid artery terminate as

the maxillary and superficial temporal

4

what type of receptors does thyroid hormone act on

nuclear

5

where is thyroid hormone stored in the thyroid gland

extracellularly within highly proteinaceous material called thyroid colloid

this is surrounded by thyroid follicular cells

6

how much does the thyroid weight

20 g

7

what does lissencephaly mean

smooth brain

8

Arnold chairi malformation

downward displacement of cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum

this causes non communicating hydrocephalus

9

what does holoprosencephaly mean

the forebrain fails to develop into two separate hemispheres

10

what is Ehlers- Danlos syndrome

connective tissue disorder

11

What is Dandy walker malformation

posterior cranial fossa anomaly leading to partial or complete absence of the vermis

12

what artery supplies trapezius and rhomboids

transverse cervical

13

what artery originates from either the second or third part of the subclavian artery

dorsal scapula

14

what artery ascends posteromedially and gives off a branch which anastomoses with the occipital artery

costocervical trunk

15

what stroke has a triad of hemiparesis, hemianopia and dysphasia

total anterior stroke

16

what stroke presents with bilateral motor and sensory deficits

posterior circulation

17

what type of haemorrhage is common in car accidents

intracerebral

18

loss of the direct pupillary response but not the consensual. what cranial nerve is damaged

optic

19

how much more common is depression in people with a chronic physical health problem

two or three

20

what disease is HLA b27 associated with

ankylosing spondylitis

21

what factor is responsible for activating macrophages

interferon gamma

22

what is Conn's syndrome

adrenal adenoma
primary hyperaldosteronism

excess production of aldosterone in the adrenals and low renin

high blood pressure

23

what drug can be prescribed for Conns disease

spironolactone

24

what value is used to diagnose diabetes 2 hours following the glucose tolerance test

11.1 mmol

25

does somatostatin increase or decrease glucagon release

decreases

26

what is the other name for growth hormone

somatotropin

27

what substances inhibit growth hormone secretion

somatostatin
(paraventricular nucleus)
negative feedback of growth hormone
IGF1 from the liver

28

how does growth hormone exert short loop control

stimulates the secretion of somatostatin and inhibits GRH

29

what effect does oestrogen have on GRH release

stimulates GRH thereby promoting GH secretion

30

what thyroid hormone is needed for GRH to work

T3
lack of thyroid hormone results in GH deficiency

31

what is insulin like growth factor (IGF 1)

released from the liver and suppresses GH synthesis

32

what is calcitriol

active form of vitamin D

33

what disease may have tiredness, hypotension, weight loss and skin pigmentation as symptoms

addisons

34

what is the short Synacthen test

adrenal insufficiency for addisons

35

what is the most common cause of addisons in the UK

autoimmune adrenalitis

destroys cells in the cortex which limits the production of steroid hormones, aldosterone and cortisol

36

how can tuberculosis cause addisons

can destroy the whole adrenal gland through the production of a caseating granuloma

37

What is waterhouse Freidrighson syndrome

Post meningococcal septicaemia leading to adrenal haemorrhage leading to acute insufficiency

38

what cancer is likely to spread to the adrenals

small cell lung cancer

39

what is the commonest cause of Cushings

long term therapeutic use of pharmacological doses of synthetic glucocorticoids

40

what is the most common cause of primary cushings

adrenal tumour (often presents with skin pigementation)

41

why is hyperglycaemia common in Cushings

glucocorticoids are diabetogenic

42

what leads to large abdominal striae on people with cushings

lack of collagen synthesis

43

what muscle groups are commonly wasted in cushings disease

proximal limb muscles

44

in what endocrine disease are levels of erythropoietin and haematocrit raised

cushings

45

in what endocrine disorder are pathological fractures common due to bone demineralisation

Cushings

46

why are infections common in cushings disease

immune suppression

47

what structure secretes oxytocin

hypothalamus and reaches the posterior pituitary

48

what is the prevalence of PTSD following MI

16%

49

what benzodiazepine may be prescribed in management of acute alcohol withdrawl

chlordiazepoxide

50

what is zolpidem

short acting anxiolytic that acts on GABA a but is not a benzodiazepine

51

what opiate drug is not commonly prescribed due to its ability to cause cardiac arrhythmias

dextropropoxyphene

52

what is the ASA physical classification system

asseses the fitness of patients before surgery

1.healthy
2 mild systemic disease
3 severe
4 severe systemic disease which is a constant threat to life
5 a moribund patient who will not otherwise survive
6 brain dead patient whose organs are being removed

53

what inhaled anaesthetic agent may cause respiratory tract irritation and is expensive

desflurane

54

name some anaesthetic inhalation agents

isoflurane
sevoflurane
desflurane
NO

55

what is benztropine used for in the treatment of parkinsons disease

Parkinson's caused by use of antipsychotic dopamine antagonist

56

what dopamine receptor is increased 6 fold in the striatum of schizophrenics

D4

57

what is dementia of the Alzeimers type

all dementias that do not have an obvious organic cause

58

what is memantine used to treat

Severe alzeimers

59

describe the synthesis of adrenalin in chromaffin cells

tyrosine
L dopa
dopamine
noradrenaline
adrenaline

60

describe the synthesis of vitamin D

cholecalciferol (d3) and ergocalciferol (d2) are converted in the liver to 25-hydroxycholecalciferol
this is converted in the kidneys to 1, 25- hydroxycholecalciferol