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Flashcards in The placebo effect Deck (8)
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what is a placebo

any therapeutic procedure which has an effect on a
patient, symptom, syndrome or disease, but which is objectively without specific
activity for the condition being treated


what is a nocebo effect

a negative effect on health due to negative expectations of treatment


what is the placebo effect

beneficial effect produced by a placebo drug or treatment, which cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment


what is the hawthorne effect

people change their behaviour when they know they are being watched by researchers


what is the main ethical objection to the use of placebos

involves deception


what is an advantage of placebos

no side effects which is often very important to patients
reduced benefits for reduced risks


what criteria are suggested by the authors for prescribing placebos

there is evidence that a placebo may be useful in the given situation
placebo treatment is regularly reviewed
there is no agreed upon gold standard treatment
treatment is initiated after full discussion with the patient
the patient is made aware of any alternatives
the patient gives consent


what reasons support the use of placebos in clinical practice

unethical to withhold something that may have a positive effect
useful when there is no gold standard treatment
have lower side effects