Neurology questions Flashcards Preview

MD4001 > Neurology questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neurology questions Deck (63):
1

what type of dementia is more common in men and typically causes focal damage and early dysphasia

vascular

2

what is a neurofibroma

benign peripheral nervous system tumour

3

what is a schwaanoma

a benign primary tumour of cranial nerve 8

4

what is an astrocytoma

the commonest type of glioma and occurs on a spectrum with an increasing grade of malignancy

5

what proportion of those who suffer a first episode of schizophrenia will go on to suffer other episodes

80%

6

what are the features of lewy body dementia

paranoid delusions, hallucinations, and is often made worse by the use of neuroleptics
changes in thinking and reasoning
confusion and variable alertness
Parkinson's symptoms
hallucinations and delusions

7

what structures are found within the parotid gland

branches of external carotid
facial nerve
retromandibular vein

8

how is schizophrenia treated

first generation classical neuroleptics and second generation atypical neuroleptics

9

what drug is used to treat schizophrenia and is a selective D2 receptor antagonist

amisulpride

10

what artery arises at the lower border of digastric muscle, opposite the origin of the facial artery

occipital artery

11

what artery can be divided into three parts in relation to the lateral pterygoid muscle

maxillary artery

12

what artery turns upwards onto the face at the anterior border of the masseter

facial artery

13

what muscle is assisted by the atlanto occipital joint when nodding

sternocleidomastoid

14

what is the innervation of sternocleidomastoid

accessory nerve

15

which muscle elevates the hyoid and the floor of the mouth

mylohyoid

16

what are the features of mylohyoid

muscle running from the mandible to the hyoid bone forming the floor of the oral cavity
derived from the first pharyngeal arch
immediately superior to the anterior belly of digastric
innervated by inferior alveolar nerve

17

what is the function of mylohyoid

elevates the hyoid and tongue
depresses the mandible
reinforces the floor of the mouth

18

what is risperidone used to treat

psychosis and bipolar
atypical antipsychotic
blocks a mixture of receptor types

19

name some acquired prion diseases

fatal familial insomnia
kuru
variant CJD

20

which facial layer encloses the spinal accessory nerve within the posterior triangle

investing

21

what receptors does ketamine act on

glutamate

22

what is the function of sternothyroid

draws the larynx downwards

23

what are the benefits of offering patients relaxation techniques before surgery

earlier discharge and less post operative pain medication

24

what are the features of haloperidol

it is a butyrophenone
has a high incidence of extrapyramidal side effects
used to treat psychosis and similar conditions

25

what is tardive dyskinesia

involuntary repetitive body movements
slow onset
most frequently caused by long term use of antipsychotics

26

what is amisupride

atypical antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia
D2 and D3 receptor antagonist
also used to treat depression

27

what is aripiprazole

atypical antipsychotic
blocks both dopamine and 5HT receptors

28

what is chlorpromazine

antipsychotic medication
D2, histamine, muscarinic and serotonin antagonist

29

what is quetiapine

atypical antipsychotic
dopamine receptor antagonist
targets alpha adrenoreceptors

30

what is sertindole

atypical antipsychotic

activates dopamine and serotonin receptors in the brain

31

what is zotepine

atypical antipsychotic

32

what are the features of a meningioma

primary neoplasm
sporadic
slow growing
well demarcated
occurs at arachnoid sites

33

what is pethidine

synthetic opioid of choice during labour

34

what is levallorphan

partial agonist on certain opioid receptors
this means that it can be used to reverse the effects of some stronger opioids such as morphine whilst still providing pain relief

35

what is diamophine

heroin

36

what is methadone

used as a substitute for heroin in addiction
useful in neuropathic pain

37

what ligament is most likely to be damaged in a whiplash injury

anterior longitudinal ligament

38

what is the incidence of PTSD following rape

80%

39

what nerve crosses an upwards bend on the lingual artery

cranial nerve 12

40

what are the side effects of narcotic analgesics

sedation, resp depression, nausea, dependance

41

what benzodiazepine may be prescribed in the management of acute alcohol withdrawl

chlordiazepoxide

42

what muscle has its superior belly in the anterior triangle and its inferior belly in the posterior triangle

omohyoid

43

what are the features of a medulloblastoma

primitive neuroectodermal tumour in children and presents with ataxia and respiratory problems

44

what vein does the occipital vein drain into

internal jugular

45

describe the ASA physical status classification system which assesses the fitness of patients before surgery

1.Healthy person.
2.Mild systemic disease.
3.Severe systemic disease.
4.Severe systemic disease that is a constant threat to life.
5.A moribund person who is not expected to survive without the operation.
6.A declared brain-dead person whose organs are being removed for donor purposes.

46

what is entacapone

may be administered with levodopa to prevent its conversion to 3-OMD by the COMT enzyme

47

what is memantine

used to treat severe alzeimer's disease

48

what is the moa of buspirone which is used to treat anxiety

5-HT1A receptor agonist

49

which artery has a superior laryngeal branch which pierces the thyrohyoid membrane

superior thyroid artery

50

what is the blood supply to the parathyroid glands

inferior thyroid artery

51

what are the features of frontal dementia

social and behavioural impact including disinhibition, stereotyped behaviours and loss of emotional empathy

52

what laxative would be appropriate for constipation in a terminally ill patient with a short prognosis

co-danthramer
a stimulant laxative used for analgesic induced constipation
only prescribed to terminally ill patients due to possible carcinogenesis

53

what movement is limited by the alar ligaments

rotation

54

what are the advantages of fentanyl over morphine

better in renal impairment and less constipating

55

what neurotransmitter to classical antipsychotics affect the most

dopamine

56

what is zolpidem

a short acting anxiolytic agent that acts on GABA A receptors and is not a benzodiazepine

57

what is the nerve supply of the carotid sinus

glossopharyngeal

58

what is the secretomotor innervation of the submandibular gland

facial

59

what substances are released by free nerve endings and recruit silent receptors which expand the receptive field

bradykinin
CGRP
substance P

60

what first line anticonvulsant would you use to treat absence seizures

ethosuximide

61

what organism can be stained with india ink

Cryptococcus neoformans (common in people with suppressed immune systems)

62

describe the features of Neisseria meningitis

onset of symptoms is faster with a more severe symptom profile

63

what are the features of tuberculous meningitis

acid fast bacilli would be seen in the CSF