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Flashcards in Practice questions Deck (45):
1

Why might surgery to the parotid gland cause a dry eye

damage to the facial nerve which runs through it

this would paralyse obicularis oculi leading to a drooping eyelid and dry eye

2

what is the nerve supply to the parotid

9- glossopharyngeal

3

what is Ramsey hunt sydrome

shingles infection that goes on to infect cn 7
this can lead to paralysis of the facila muscles e.g. obicularis oculi

4

what can cause glaucoma

blockage of scleral venous drainage

5

what is hutchitongs sign

vesicles on the tip of the nose which may precede opthalmic herpes zoster

shingles infection spreading to the eye, can spread to the optic nerve

6

what are the signs of huntingtons

flailing movement, confusion, disdiodochokinesia

7

what is the cause of huntingtons

damage to the caudate nucleus leading to loss of GABA and encephalin

this means the indirect pathway is decreased and movement in increased

8

what substances mediate the medial globus pallidus

GABA and substance P

9

what is the result of lesions to the spinocerebellar part of the cerebellum

linb ataxia and action tremour

10

what would be the effect of vermis lesions

bilateral loss of control of truncal muscles and slurred speech

11

what are the signs of stroke on an enhanced CT

abnormal cortical subcortical area, appears darker than usual due to oedema

hyperdense areas

inability to visualise the lentiform nucleus

12

what is the result of PHF8 mutation

siderius x linked retardation and cleft palate

13

what mutations may cause cleft lips

22q11, IRF8, PHF8

14

what is the gene for wardenburgs syndrome (deafness, constipation, pigment defects)

PAX-C

15

TCOF-1 gene (failure of the first and second arch to develop, abnormal eye shape and underdeveloped zygoma)

treacher collins

16

what is bullous keratopathy

small vesicles are formed in the cornea due to endothelial dysfunction

17

what vision would be the result of an optic tract lesion

bitemporal hemianopia

18

what test can be used to test the function of the superior oblique muscles innervated by the trochlear nerve

look downward and inwards

19

what causes homonymous hemianopia

optic tract damage

20

what would be the result of and abducent nerve lesion

patient could not look lateral

21

what would the result of an occulomotor nerve lesion

pateint could not look up and out , down and out , medail or up and inward

22

what nerve innervates stapedius muscles which dampens the movement of stapes bone

facial, 7

if damaged can lead to excessive movement of stapes on loud noises leading to pain

23

what pharyngeal arch makes the facial nerve and stapes

2nd

24

what does the first pharyngeal arch make

trigeminal nerve and muscles of mastication

25

what arch makes stylopharyngeus muscles

3rd pharyngeal

26

which meatus does the facial nerve pass through

external auditory meatus

27

what muscle is used to move the eye outwards and laterally

right inferior rectus

28

what is amaurosis fugax

temporary blindness caused by the blockage of the retinal artery by a thrombus

29

pituritary tumour on the optic chiasm

bilateral hemianopia

30

half of the visual field loss in the contralateral eye

POCS stroke

31

meyers loop lesion

contralateral superior quandrantiopia

32

phenobarbitone

antiepileptic which also causes osteoporosis

33

what does a lesion to the cerebrocerebellar part of the cerebellum lead to

delay in initiating movements and performing complex movements

34

medial vestibulospinal

head position

35

spinocerebellar lesion

limb ataxia and action tremour

36

what canal is just next to the foramen magnum

hypoglossal canal

37

foramen caecum

emisary vein from the nose to the superior sagittal sinus

38

what is the clinical significance of the foramen caecum

infections of the nose and nearby areas can be transmitted to the meninges and brain from the danger triangle of the face

39

foramen rotundum (sphenoid bone)

maxillary branch of trigeminal nerve passes through and extis the skull via the pterygopalatine fossa and foramen rotundum

40

foramen ovale

transmits the mandibular nerve, trigeminal motor root, accessory meningeal artery

41

foramen spinosum

middle meningeal artery, vein and meningeal branch of mandibular nerve

42

what stroke is isolated dysphasia

PACS partial anterior circulation stroke

43

when would you give intra arterial thrombolysis instead of IV

from 3-6 hours after the stroke

44

what is TACS (total arterial circulation stroke) symptoms

hemiparesis, dysphasia and homonymous hemianopia

45

what is POCS (posterior circulation stroke)

posterior lobe affect so homonymous hemianopia