PSY101 L01 Key Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PSY101 L01 Key Terms Deck (19):
1

Empirical

Relying on or derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement.

2

Critical thinking

The ability and willingness to assess claims and make judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence rather than emotion ore anecdote.

3

Functionalism

An early psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness.

4

Psychology

The discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, and external environment; the term is often represented by Ψ , the Greek letter psi, (usually pronounced "sy").

5

Psychoanalysis

A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts.

6

Psychological practice

Provision of mental health services.

7

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

An Austrian neurologist known for his method of psychotherapy- psychoanalysis; publication of The Interpretation of Dreams; and his theory of personality which is composed of three elements: id, ego and superego.

8

William James (1842-1910)

An American psychologist, a leader of functionalism, the psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behavioral and consciousness.

9

Behaviorists

Focus on the environmental rewards and punishers that maintain or discourage specific behaviors.

10

Psychiatrist

A medical doctor who has done a three-year residency in psychiatry.

11

Phrenology

The now discredited theory that different brain areas account for specific character and personality traits, which can be "read" from bumps on the skull.

12

Social-cognitive learning theorists

Theories that emphasize how behavior is learned and maintained through observation and imitation of others, positive consequences, and cognitive processes such as plans, expectations, and beliefs.

13

Psychoanalyst

A person who practices one particular form of therapy.

14

Occam's razor

A principal attributed to the 14th century philosopher, William of Ockham, to select the best explanation of a phenomenon with the most evidence and least unverified assumptions.

15

Psychotherapist

A person who does any kind of psychotherapy, but may not be credentialed.

16

Structuralism

An early psychological approach that emphasized the analysis of immediate experience into basic elements.

17

"psychobabble"

The use of psychological and scientific language, without empirical evidence, to promote quick fixes for the problems and challenges experienced in life. Example: Re-programming your brain to be successful at work.

18

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

The father of experimental psychology, founded the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879.

19

Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

A British naturalist, renowned for his theories of evolution and natural selection.