PYS101 LO2 Key Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PYS101 LO2 Key Terms Deck (26):
1

Theory

An organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships.

2

Hypothesis

A statement that attempts to predict or to account for a set of phenomena; scientific hypotheses specify relationships among events or variables and are empirically tested.

3

Peer review

Experts in the field who evaluate and scrutinize the research findings.

4

Representative sample

A group of subjects, selected from a population for study, which matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex.

5

Descriptive methods

Methods that yield descriptions of behavior but not necessarily causal explanations.

6

Case study

A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated.

7

Observational study

A study in which the researcher carefully and systematically observes and records behavior without interfering with the behavior; it may involve either naturalistic or laboratory observations.

8

Naturalistic observation

Describes behavior as it occurs in the natural environment.

9

Laboratory observation

Researchers use a controlled setting to observe behavior.

10

Psychological tests

Procedures that explain behavior and personality in terms of unconscious energy dynamics with the individual.

11

Ethics

Moral principles of conduct governing research. Research methods must meet American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines.

12

Validity

The ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure.

13

Surveys

Questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about their experiences, attitudes, or opinions.

14

Correlational study

A descriptive study that looks for a consistent relationship between two phenomena.

15

Correlation

A measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.

16

Variables

Characteristics of behavior or experience that can be measured or described by a numeric scale.

17

Experiment

A controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another.

18

Independent variable

A variable that an experimenter manipulates.

19

Dependent variable

A variable that an experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulations of the independent variable.

20

Experimental and control groups

Subjects in both groups are treated exactly the same, except they are not exposed to the same treatment, or manipulation of the independent variable.

21

Single-blind study

An experiment in which subjects do not know whether they are in an experimental or a control group.

22

Double blind study

An experiment in which neither the subjects nor the individuals running the study know which subjects are in the control group and which are in the experimental group until after the results are tallied.

23

Descriptive statistics

Statistical procedures that organize and summarize research data.

24

Inferential statistics

Statistical procedures that allow researchers to draw inferences about how statistically meaningful a study's results are.

25

Statistical significance

A term used to refer to a result that is extremely unlikely to have occurred by chance.

26

Informed consent

The doctrine that human research subjects must participate voluntarily and must know enough about the study to make an intelligent decision about whether to participate.