Psy101 L04 Key Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psy101 L04 Key Terms Deck (38):
1

The largest brain structure; consisting of the upper part of the brain, divided into two hemispheres, it is in charge of most sensory, motor, and cognitive processes. From the Latin for "brain."

Cerebrum [suh-REE-brum]

2

A collection of neurons and supportive tissue running from the base of the brain down the center of the back, protected by a column of bones (the spinal column).

Spinal cord

3

A collection of several thin layers of cells covering the cerebrum; it is largely responsible for higher mental functions. Cortex is Latin for "bark" or "rind."

Cerebral cortex

4

The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates the internal organs and glands.

Autonomic nervous system

5

A recording of neural activity detected by electrodes.

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

6

A brain structure that regulates movement and balance and is involved in the learning of certain kinds of simple responses.

Cerebellum

7

Lobes at the lower back part of the brain.

Occipital [ahk-SIP-uh-tuhl] lobes

8

A method for studying the body and brain tissue without injecting chemicals.

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

9

A bundle of nerve fibers (axons and sometimes dendrites) in the peripheral nervous system.

Nerve

10

Immature cells that renew themselves and have the potential to develop into mature cells; given encouraging environments, stem cells from early embryos can develop into any cell type.

Stem cells

11

Lobes at the top of the brain's cerebral cortex; they contain areas that receive information on pressure, pain, touch, and temperature.

Parietal [puh-RYE-uh-tuhl] lobes

12

The subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes bodily resources and increases the output of energy during emotion and stress.

Sympathetic nervous system

13

The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that connects to sensory receptors and to skeletal muscles; sometimes called the skeletal nervous system.

Somatic nervous system

14

The bundle of nerve fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres.

Corpus callosum [CORE-puhs cah-LOW-suhm]

15

The subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that operates during relaxed states and that conserves energy.

Parasympathetic nervous system

16

A chemical substance that is released by a transmitting neuron at the synapse and that alters the activity of a receiving neuron.

Neurotransmitter

17

A brain structure involved in emotions and drives vital to survival, such as fear, hunger, thirst, and reproduction; it regulates the autonomic nervous system.

Hypothalamus

18

A method for analyzing biochemical activity in the brain, using injections of a glucose-like substance containing a radioactive element.

PET scan (positron-emission tomography)

19

A brain structure involved in the storage of new information in memory.

Hippocampus

20

All portions of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord; it includes sensory and motor nerves.

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

21

A small endocrine gland at the base of the brain, which releases many hormones and regulates other endocrine glands.

Pituitary gland

22

The part of the brain located in the temporal lobes which processes sounds.

Auditory cortex

23

Lobes at the sides of the brain's cerebral cortex; they contain areas involved in hearing, memory, perception, emotion, and (in the left lobe, typically) language comprehension.

Temporal lobe

24

A brain structure that relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex.

Thalamus

25

Lobes at the front of the brain's cerebral cortex; they contain areas involved in short-term memory, higher-order thinking, initiative, social judgment, and (in the left lobe, typically) speech production.

Frontal lobes

26

The two halves of the cerebrum.

Cerebral hemispheres

27

A brain structure involved in the arousal and regulation of emotion and the initial emotional response to sensory information.

Amygdale [uh-MIG-dul-uh]

28

A cell that conducts electrochemical signals; the basic unit of the nervous system; also called a nerve cell.

Neuron

29

An area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension.

Wernicke's area

30

Theory that the left hemisphere of the brain exerts control over the right hemisphere.

Hemispheric dominance

31

A group of brain areas involved in emotional reactions and motivated behavior.

Limbic system

32

The portion of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

Central nervous system (CNS)

33

Chemical substances in the nervous system that are similar in structure and action to opiates; they are involved in pain reduction, pleasure, and memory and are known technically as endogenous opioid peptides.

Endorphins

34

The part of the brain located in the parietal lobes where information is received about pressure, pain, touch, and temperature.

Somatosensory cortex

35

The part of the neuron that keeps it alive and determines whether it will fire.

Cell body

36

The part of the brain located in the occipital lobes where visual signals are processed.

Visual cortex

37

A neuron's extending fiber that conducts impulses away from the cell body and transmits them to other neurons.

Axon

38

Hormones that regulate the development and functioning of reproductive organs and that stimulate the development of male and female sexual characteristics; they include androgens, estrogens, and progesterone.

Sex hormones (androgens, estrogens, progesterone)