PYS101 L08 Key Terms Flashcards Preview

PYS101 > PYS101 L08 Key Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in PYS101 L08 Key Terms Deck (31):
1

A form of reasoning in which a conclusion follows necessarily from certain premises; if the premises are true, the conclusion must be true.

Deductive reasoning

2

The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Test designed for American children.

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

3

The tendency to look for or pay attention only to information that confirms one's own belief.

Confirmation bias

4

A proposition to support a conclusion.

Premise

5

Creativity in transferring skills to new situations.

Experiential (creative) intelligence

6

The process of identifying the best right answer or conclusion from the information presented on an intelligence test or college entrance exam.

Formal reasoning

7

A mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common properties.

Concept

8

An inferred characteristic of an individual, usually defined as the ability to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, act purposefully, or adapt to changes in the environment.

Intelligence

9

The ability to identify your own and other people's emotions accurately, express your emotions clearly, and regulate emotions in yourself and others.

Emotional intelligence

10

A theory of intelligence that emphasizes information processing strategies, the ability to creatively transfer skills to new situations, and the practical application of intelligence.

Triarchic [try-ARE-kick] theory of intelligence

11

An especially representative example of a concept.

Prototype

12

The drawing of conclusions or inferences from observations, facts, or assumptions.

Reasoning

13

The tendency to overestimate one's ability to have predicted an event once the outcome is known; the "I knew it all along" phenomenon.

Hindsight bias

14

Learning that occurs when you acquire knowledge about something without being aware of how you did so and without being able to state exactly what it is you have learned.

Implicit learning

15

A measure of mental development expressed in terms of the average mental ability at a given age.

Mental age (MA)

16

A unit of meaning that is made up of concepts and expresses a single idea.

Proposition

17

Mental processes occurring outside of and not available to conscious awareness.

Nonconscious processes

18

Practical applications based on the context.

Contextual (practical) intelligence

19

Mental processes occurring outside of conscious awareness but accessible to consciousness when necessary.

Subconscious processes

20

A burden of doubt a person feels about his or her performance, due to negative stereotypes about his or her group's abilities.

Stereotype threat

21

A measure of intelligence originally computed by dividing a person's mental age by his or her chronological age and multiplying the result by 100; it is now derived from norms provided for standardized intelligence tests.

Intelligence quotient (IQ)

22

Information-processing strategies drawn on when thinking intelligently about a problem.

Componential intelligence

23

Mental inflexibility and obliviousness to the present context.

Mindlessness

24

Attribute human qualities to nonhuman beings.

Anthropomorphism

25

A state of tension that occurs when a person simultaneously holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent or when a person's belief is incongruent with his or her behavior.

Cognitive dissonance

26

No clearly correct solution to a problem.

Informal reasoning

27

A form of reasoning in which the premises provide support for a conclusion, but it is still possible for the conclusion to be false.

Inductive reasoning

28

Identifies the strategies people use when thinking about a problem and arriving at a solution.

Cognitive approach to intelligence

29

Concepts that have a moderate number of instances that are easier to acquire than those having few or many instances.

Basic concepts

30

A process in which opposing facts or ideas are weighed and compared, with a view to determining the best solution or resolving differences.

Dialectical reasoning

31

An integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world.

Cognitive schema