PT Test 19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PT Test 19 Deck (96):

When working with a client who has COPD (stable and medically cleared for exercise) and likes
swimming, you should recommend they swim ______ days per week at a ______ intensity

> 3, high


Dumbbells, barbells, kettle bells, and medicine balls are generally considered what type of

dynamic external resistance devices


Doris is an 80 year-old client who is beginning an exercise program. What is recommended when
providing initial stability ball training?

Place the ball close to a wall during the first few sessions


You determine that a client is over striding when they run. What would be the effect on their
running performance due to this mechanical error?

Decrease in running economy and increase in braking motion.


One difference between over-reaching and overtraining is that ______.

Overtraining involves a syndrome of prolonged fatigue in athletes whereas over-reaching may
be planned, short-term training phase of high-intensity exercise followed by short-term recovery.


Overtraining symptoms may include

decreased neuromuscular strength


What action is produced by the quadriceps femora muscles during the concentric phase of the
back squat exercise?

Knee extension


Which muscles are used to flex the knee joint?

Hamstrings, Gracilis, and Sartorius


Which is most associated with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation?

Stretching techniques


Which statement is not an American College of Sports Medicine guideline for aerobic exercise and
the older adult?

A. Moderate intensity exercise on most days of the week.
B. Exercise must be vigorous and continuous to be beneficial.
C. Intensity guidelines established for younger people generally applies.
D. Initally increase exercise duration rather than intensity.
Answer: B


What is the ACSM recommendation for an effective strength training program for a menopausal

10-15 repetitions per set of moderate to vigorous intensity for 8-10 major muscle groups


Which body fat distribution pattern is most commonly associated with an increased risk of
metabolic disease?



What is a potential side effect of taking diet pills prior to an exercise session?

Increase in blood pressure and heart rate


What is bradycardia?

Heart rate less than 60 beats per minute


What is tachycardia?

Heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute


A 57 year old sedentary female client who has a blood pressure of 150/70 mm Hg and a total
serum cholesterol of 240 mg/dL (6.2 mmol/L) desires to begin a vigorous intensity exercise
program. How should the personal trainer advise the client?

Begin a low intensity exercise program until medical clearance is obtained


Your new client is a 42 year old male who is a stock broker. His health history revealed the
following: total cholesterol 185 mg/dL (4.7 mmol/L), HDL 32 mg/dL (0.8 mmol/L), LDL 110 mg/dL
(2.8 mmol/L), resting blood pressure 138/80 mm Hg, waist circumference 98 centimeters. Based
on the client's initial risk classification, what is the most appropriate suggestion for the client
regarding his exercise program?

Begin a vigorous exercise program immediately


What is the order of "normal" electrical conduction of the heart?

SA Node, AV Node, Bundle of His, Bundle Branches, Purkinje Fibers


Which structure is responsible for maintaining atrio-ventricular valve closure in the heart?

Papillary muscle


The ______ is the muscle responsible for inspiration during quiet breathing.



What acute cardiovascular responses accompany the transition from sitting to walking?

Increase in cardiac output, and arteriovenous oxygen difference


When considering the acute responses of arm versus leg exercise, which is true?

At the peak work load, oxygen consumption is greater with leg exercise


Cardiovascular adaptations to chronic endurance training include a(n)________ at a given fixed
submaximal exercise intensity.

increase in stroke volume and a decrease in heart rate


Which peripheral adaptation is in part responsible for improvements in oxygen consumption that result from regular cardiovascular exercise?

Increased capillary density


Following a 12 week aerobic conditioning program, an individual running at a submaximal
workload would be expected to have a(n) ______ circulating blood lactate level as compared to
the value obtained at that same absolute workload prior to the conditioning program.

somewhat lower


What is most likely the cause of light-headedness and dizziness experienced by an older adult
who moves from a lying to a standing position?

Decreased venous return


Decreased muscle masses as a result of the aging process plays a role in ______ and ______

glucose intolerance, declining independence


A 50-year-old woman who quit smoking 5 months ago with a BP of 120/90 mmHg, a BMI of 29
kg/m2, a LDL of 135 mg/dL, and a HDL of 70 mg/dL wants to start an exercise program. How
many net positive risk factors does she have?



You have a new male client who is 68” (1.73m) tall, 36 years old, weighs 194 lbs (88 kg) and is
cleared by his physician to begin an exercise program of moderate intensity. Which constitutes a
SMART weight loss goal for him?

Lose 1-2 lbs (0.45-0.9 kg) per week by walking 40 minutes, 5 times a week at 3.8 mph (6.1
km/hr) on the treadmill.


Older adults may have difficulty performing activities of daily living due to ____

decreased joint mobility


According to ACSM guidelines, the _____ is categorized under moderate risk for cardiovascular

A. 47 year old male with high blood pressure
B. 51 year old female with high blood pressure
C. 37 year old female with type 2 diabetes
D. 65 year old male with no other risk factors
Answer: A


When proctoring the AHA/ACSM Health/Fitness Facility Preparticipation Screening Questionnaire
to a new client, you learn that he may need to use a facility with a medically qualified staff or need
a physician’s referral. What sole aspect of his history would put him in that category?

A. His blood cholesterol level is 250mg/dL (6.5 mmol/L)
B. His blood pressure is 160/90 mm Hg
C. He experiences chest discomfort with exertion
D. He smokes 1 pack of cigarettes per day
Answer: C


A process that entails conveying complete understanding to a client or patient about his or her
options to choose to participate in a procedure, test, service, or program is known as a(n) ______.

A. informed consent
B. release or waiver
C. standard of care
D. assurance of instruction
Answer: A


The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) includes questions regarding

A. low density lipoproteins
B. current fitness levels
C. presence of chest pain and dizziness
D. family history of heart disease
Answer: C


According to ACSM guidelines, a _____ client who is beginning a/n _____ is recommended to
obtain a medical examination and graded exercise test

A. 24 year old, sedentary male; moderate-intensity walking program
B. 62 year old, sedentary and overweight male; moderate-intensity biking program
C. 20 year old female who smokes one pack of cigarettes per day; eight week resistance training
D. 46 year old female, newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes; cycling class
Answer: D


One purpose of the pre-participation health screening is to ______.

identify clients in need of physician clearance


Your client has discovered she is pregnant through a home pregnancy test. She wants to continue
to exercise during her pregnancy and is seeking your help. What is the best recommendation?

Encourage her to consult with her physician for any possible limitations.


Immediately following a chest and shoulder workout a 55-year-old male executive complains of a
“dull ache” in the left side of the chest that is aggravated by respiration. What would you consider
is the source of the pain?



What heart rate changes are observed as a result of chronic aerobic training?

Both submaximal heart rate for a standard exercise task, and resting heart rate decrease


The stroke volume of a client who has a cardiac output of 5 liters per minute and a heart rate of 70
beats per minute is approximately _____.

70 mL


What tends to cause the symptoms of soreness that occur at 24-48 hours after a single bout of
intensive exercise?

Muscle fiber damage


If you are palpating the anterior surface of the lateral side of the distal forearm, what pulse are you



What muscle is the prime mover for a seated lateral dumbbell raise to shoulder level with elbows
slightly flexed?

Middle deltoid


In comparison to type I muscle fibers, type II fibers ______

Are recruited at a higher percentage of maximum force


In what plane does the lower leg move during the seated knee extension?



What is defined as the ability to move a joint through its normal range of motion?



Which occurs when running up an incline?

A greater range of motion occurs in the ankle joint


Which is not true regarding a properly administered informed consent?

A. It provides an explanation of all procedures to be performed.
B. It releases the facility and personnel from liability.
C. It provides an opportunity for inquiries.
D. It encourages and implies confidentiality.
Answer: B


Your client is a 59 year old sedentary female with a body mass index of 33 kg/m2. She has no
history of heart disease herself, but her mother had a myocardial infarction at the age of 66. She is
an ex-smoker who quit 15 years ago, blood pressure is consistently 135/85 mm Hg, total
cholesterol is 180 mg/dL (4.6 mmol/L) with an HDL level of 30 mg/dL (0.8 mmol/L), and blood
glucose is 90 mg/dL. She has come to you for advice because she wishes to improve her overall
health and fitness.
If this client wanted to initiate a regular MODERATE intensity exercise routine, what is
recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine prior to her participating in exercise?

Neither a medical examination nor submaximal exercise testing is necessary


What behavioral strategy are you employing when you plan an outdoor exercise program for your
client during his upcoming three-week vacation?

Relapse prevention


One of your corporate wellness clients is normally consistent in attending appointments. Lately, he
has been missing sessions. What strategy would not be the most appropriate way to demonstrate
social support to encourage his adherence?

A.Contact his company Human Resources department with an attendance report.
B. Send an e-mail reminding him of future appointments.
C. Call the client expressing your concern.
D. Encourage the client to find a workout partner to improve future adherence.
Answer: A


Where does ambivalence fall in the “Stages of Change” behavior model?

A. Preparation
B. Contemplation
C. Pre-contemplation
D. Action
Answer: B


A dietary protein is considered "complete" when it ______.

contains all essential amino acids


Individuals who have recently had a hip fracture or hip replacement surgery are usually instructed
to avoid which motion of the hip?

A. Abduction
B. Extension
C. Internal rotation
D. External rotation
Answer: C


You are demonstrating how to stretch to your client. Which statement about technique is correct?

A. Increase range of stretch during exhalation.
B. Increase range of stretch using a slight bouncing movement.
C. Increase range of stretch while breath holding.
D. Increase range of stretch during inhalation.
Answer: A


General guidelines for increasing flexibility of the hamstring muscles include _____

warm-up, exhale during the stretch and maintain neutral position of the spine


Which person would most likely experience intrinsic reinforcement?

A. Jane, age 30, who commenced her exercise program 2 weeks ago.
B. Pete, age 27, who started his resistance training regimen to increase muscle mass one month
C. Alexis, age 49, who has been swimming for 6-months three times a week, to increase her
cardiovascular endurance.
D. Anna, age 54, who has a weight loss goal and has been walking three times a week for a
Answer: C


Which has been substantiated in the scientific literature as a supplement that may be helpful for
decreasing the duration of the common cold but has been shown to interact with drugs taken for
anxiety and high serum cholesterol?



Claims relating to personal trainers violating their scope of practice occur most frequently in which

A. Supplement recommendations
B. Emergency response negligence
C. Violations of HIPAA
D. Inappropriate exercise prescription
Answer: A


Which business model can be described as a formal business entity subject to laws, regulations,
and the demands of stock holders?



Which component should be the primary focus of the mission statement for a personal training

Business ideals


You learn that your client does not enjoy exercising and only maintains their exercise program to
please their significant other. This client is ______ motivated



What behavior change technique includes expressing empathy, developing discrepancy, rolling
with resistance, and supporting self-efficacy?

Motivational interviewing


The release of cortisol that results from repeated stressful events can lead to an increase in the
accumulation of ______ and subsequently the release of free fatty acids into the blood stream

abdominal fat


What strategy is least likely to increase adherance in a new client?

A. Keep exercise instensity high to expedite improvements.
B. Minimize muscle soreness and injury.
C. Individualize exercise goals and objectives.
D. Use step counters to assess outcome measures.
Answer: A


Procuring general liability insurance and ______ provides legal protection for a personal trainer
who has been accused of negligence.

professional liability insurance


If the facility's ______ is not in place, a potential for litigation could occur

emergency policy


Which would not be found on a quarterly profit and loss statement

A. Revenue from membership dues.
B. Expenses due to payroll and benefits.
C. Proportional fixed depreciation costs.
D. Fixed assets like land or a building.
Answer: D


Determining an organization's guiding principles and goals is one element of ______.

strategic planning


One example of a high cost/high impact marketing technique is ____

a television commercial depicting the facility and its employees


According to the self-determination theory, a personal trainer would be most effective in helping a
new client engage in an exercise regimen by ______.

encouraging him/her to choose a favorite mode of exercise in a supportive group environment
that meets regularly


What is the smallest contractile unit of a muscle cell?



When attempting to elicit “change talk” during Motivational Interviewing, the personal trainer
should ______ of the client

make observations, express feelings, identify needs & make requests


Which may decrease as a result of chronic aerobic training?

Plasma triglyceride levels


Which concept best describes the effects of prolonged bed-rest?



Which muscle is a major agonist for hip abduction?



As the intensity of dynamic exercise increases, which acute responses occurs?

Heart rate and systolic blood pressure increase, diastolic pressure remains unchanged.


What physical fitness component is primarily emphasized when incorporating explosive Olympicstyle
lifts into a resistance training program?

Muscular power


What is an action of the hamstring muscles?

Hip extension


What is the predominant factor causing an increase in strength during the initial weeks of training?

Improvements in neuromuscular adaptation.


A client's workout plan shows scheduled increases and decreases in exercise volume. What
training concept is being demonstrated



An appropriate exercise movement to develop the ________ is a ________ .

wrist flexors; wrist curl


As the percentage of 1 RM (Repetition Maximum) resistance increases ______.

the number of repetitions until fatigue decreases


Which describes a Valsalva maneuver performed during a free weight biceps curl?

Expiration of pressure against a closed glottis


What are the minimal body fat percentages that place individuals at increased risk of disease?

A. male 23%, female 33%


Mr. Garcia wishes to enroll in your exercise program. Preliminary evaluation revealed the
following information:
Age = 50 years Resting heart rate = 78 beats/min
Weight = 198 lb (90 kg) Resting blood pressure = 162/94 mm Hg
Height = 70 inches (178 cm) Body fat = 30%
Blood chemistry:
Total cholesterol = 240 mg/dl (6.21 mmol/L)
HDL cholesterol = 34 mg/dl (0.88 mmol/L)
Triglycerides = 180 mg/dl (2.03 mmol/L)
Glucose = 98 mg/dl (5.55 mmol/L)
Family history and current habits:
Father died of heart attack at 90 years of age
Hypertensive mother died at age 84
Smokes a pipe after dinner each evening
Smokes cigarettes (25-30 per day)
Reports too much work and is struggling to meet deadlines
Currently doing moderate exercise
No medications at present

According to ACSM stratification guidelines, Mr. Garcia has which coronary artery disease risk

Hypertension, high total cholesterol, smoking, age


What factors should be taken into account when determining appropriate exercise test mode?

Age, health history, current physical activity level


What is the recommended range of essential body fat necessary for normal physiological

3-5% for males; 8-12% for females


What is the correct hand placement when spotting the supine dumbbell fly?

Close to the dumbbells or wrists of your client without touching them


A client at your fitness center who has just completed a vigorous bout of exercise complains of
fatigue, lightheadedness and shakiness. You know from his health history that he has type II
diabetes. Which do you administer after you call for medical assistance?

Orange juice


Joe consumed half of the adult Recommended Dietary Allowance for carbohydrates as noted on
the nutrition facts panel for persons consuming 2500 calories per day. Approximately how many
grams of carbohydrates does Joe have remaining today?



Which is true about energy content of the macronutrients?

water = 0 kcal/gram, protein = 4 kcal/gram, alcohol = 7 kcal/gram


Your client is a 59 year old sedentary female with a body mass index of 33 kg/m2. She has no
history of heart disease herself, but her mother had a myocardial infarction at the age of 66. She is
an ex-smoker who quit 15 years ago, blood pressure is consistently 135/85 mm Hg, total
cholesterol is 180 mg/dL (4.6 mmol/L) with an HDL level of 30 mg/dL (0.8 mmol/L), and blood
glucose is 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L). She has come to you for advice because she wishes to
improve her overall health and fitness.
What initial American College of Sports Medicine risk stratification does this client fall into?

Moderate risk


Atherosclerosis is primarily characterized by ______.

plaque development in the arteries


Compared to adults, children are at a higher risk of ______ when exercising in a hot/humid

. muscular fatigue


What changes occur during exercise following cigarette smoking?

A. Respiration rate is suppressed.
B. Blood pressure response is suppresed.
C. Heart rate response is exaggerated.
D. Sympathetic activity is inhibited.
Answer: C