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Year 2 Semester 2 > SPOT/OSPE Revision > Flashcards

Flashcards in SPOT/OSPE Revision Deck (225)
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91

Why is the cribriform plate full of holes?

Separates cranium from nasal cavity
The numerous foramina transmit blood vessels and olfactory nerves from the olfactory epithelium of the caudal nasal cavity to the olfactory bulbs of the brain

92

In the horse, the frontal sinus communicates with what?

Caudal maxillary sinus

93

Does the frontal sinus communicate with the nasal cavity directly?

Yes via small openings between the ethmoturbinates in all species EXCEPT THE HORSE

94

Which turbinate is absent in the horse?

Ventral

95

Why, in the young horse, are the lateral parts of the maxillary sinus much smaller?

Due to unerupted cheek teeth occupying the maxillary space

96

What are the three branches coming off the common carotid artery?

Internal carotid artery (caudal)
Pharyngeal artery
Occipital artery (cranial)

97

Where do all sinuses drain into?

Middle meatus

98

What is the purpose of trephine points?

Give access to teeth and their roots
For draining a sinus

99

What is the horse dental formula?

I3/3 C1/1 (or 0/0) PM3/3 (or 4/4) M3/3

100

What is the dental formula of a dog?

I3/3 C1/1 PM4/4 M2/3

101

What is the dental formula of a rabbit?

I2/1 C0/0 PM3/2 M3/3

102

What is the clinical significance of mandibular lymph nodes?

Can be easily palpated

103

What does the parotid lymph node drain?

Dorsal structures of the head

104

What are the two main cartilages of the ear?

Auricular cartilage (pinna)
Annular cartilage (at the base)

105

Where does the lacrimal gland lie?

Just beneath the orbital ligament

106

What is the function of the dorsal oblique muscle?
What is it innervated by?

It rotates the dorsal part of the eyeball medially and ventrally
Trochlear nerve

107

What is the function of the ventral oblique muscle?
What is it innervated by?

Moves the ventral part of the eyeball medially and dorsally
Occulomotor nerve

108

What passes through the superficial (external) inguinal ring in the female dog?

The vaginal process containing the round ligament of the uterus

109

What is the gastrosplenic ligament?

A fold of peritoneum attaching the greater curvature of the stomach o the spleen
Has considerable amounts of fat stored within it

110

How would you identify the ileum from the jejunum?

Ileum is the only part of the intestines to have antimesenteric blood vessels (artery and vein)

111

In dogs and cats, which kidney lies more cranially?

Right

112

Describe the layout of the bloodvessels in the equine jejunum and ileum

Jejunum: branching blood vessels
Ileum: parallel blood vessels

113

Which flexure of the colon lies most caudally in the horse?

Pelvic flexure

114

Which muscles originate partly or wholly from the sacrotuberous ligament?

Piriformis
Superficial gluteal
Tenuissimus
Biceps femoris

115

Where does the sacrotuberous ligament run?

From the sacrum/first coccygeal vertebrae to the ischiatic tuberosity

116

What is the function of tenuissimus?

Stifle flexor

117

What is the function of biceps femoris?

Hip extensor
Stifle flexor
Hock extensor

118

Which muscles make up the femoral triangle?

Cranially: sartorius
Caudally: pectineus
Proximally: iliopsoas

119

What is the saphenous vein associated with on the lateral aspect and medial aspect of the hindlimb?

Lateral: nothing
Medial: saphenous nerve (branch of femoral) and saphenous artery

120

In the bovine hoof, which side of the hoof is larger?

Lateral, carries the greater share of the hoof