Flashcards in SPOT/OSPE Revision Deck (225)
Why is the cribriform plate full of holes?
Separates cranium from nasal cavity
The numerous foramina transmit blood vessels and olfactory nerves from the olfactory epithelium of the caudal nasal cavity to the olfactory bulbs of the brain
In the horse, the frontal sinus communicates with what?
Caudal maxillary sinus
Does the frontal sinus communicate with the nasal cavity directly?
Yes via small openings between the ethmoturbinates in all species EXCEPT THE HORSE
Which turbinate is absent in the horse?
Why, in the young horse, are the lateral parts of the maxillary sinus much smaller?
Due to unerupted cheek teeth occupying the maxillary space
What are the three branches coming off the common carotid artery?
Internal carotid artery (caudal)
Occipital artery (cranial)
Where do all sinuses drain into?
What is the purpose of trephine points?
Give access to teeth and their roots
For draining a sinus
What is the horse dental formula?
I3/3 C1/1 (or 0/0) PM3/3 (or 4/4) M3/3
What is the dental formula of a dog?
I3/3 C1/1 PM4/4 M2/3
What is the dental formula of a rabbit?
I2/1 C0/0 PM3/2 M3/3
What is the clinical significance of mandibular lymph nodes?
Can be easily palpated
What does the parotid lymph node drain?
Dorsal structures of the head
What are the two main cartilages of the ear?
Auricular cartilage (pinna)
Annular cartilage (at the base)
Where does the lacrimal gland lie?
Just beneath the orbital ligament
What is the function of the dorsal oblique muscle?
What is it innervated by?
It rotates the dorsal part of the eyeball medially and ventrally
What is the function of the ventral oblique muscle?
What is it innervated by?
Moves the ventral part of the eyeball medially and dorsally
What passes through the superficial (external) inguinal ring in the female dog?
The vaginal process containing the round ligament of the uterus
What is the gastrosplenic ligament?
A fold of peritoneum attaching the greater curvature of the stomach o the spleen
Has considerable amounts of fat stored within it
How would you identify the ileum from the jejunum?
Ileum is the only part of the intestines to have antimesenteric blood vessels (artery and vein)
In dogs and cats, which kidney lies more cranially?
Describe the layout of the bloodvessels in the equine jejunum and ileum
Jejunum: branching blood vessels
Ileum: parallel blood vessels
Which flexure of the colon lies most caudally in the horse?
Which muscles originate partly or wholly from the sacrotuberous ligament?
Where does the sacrotuberous ligament run?
From the sacrum/first coccygeal vertebrae to the ischiatic tuberosity
What is the function of tenuissimus?
What is the function of biceps femoris?
Which muscles make up the femoral triangle?
What is the saphenous vein associated with on the lateral aspect and medial aspect of the hindlimb?
Medial: saphenous nerve (branch of femoral) and saphenous artery