Flashcards in SPOT/OSPE Revision Deck (225)
Where does food pass in the ruminant?
Rumen -> reticulum -> omasum -> abomasum (equivalent to simple stomach) -> duodenum
What is located on the right side of the ruminant abdomen?
Colon, jejunum, omasum, abomasum, liver
What is located on the left side of the ruminant abdomen?
What do parietal cells produce?
What is the role of orbicularis oculi?
Close the eye and so sweep tears across the front of the eye, keeping it clean and moist. If this fails to work, corneal ulcers will develop.
What is entropian?
What is ectropian?
Entropian=inward rolling of the eyelid margin. Can affect upper or lower lids.
Ectropian=eversion of the eyelid margin, typically the lower one.
Which nerve supplies the lacrimal gland?
Where do secretions from the lacrimal gland drain?
Lacrimal gland -> lacrimal sac -> naso-lacrimal duct -> nasal cavity
Discuss some species differences regarding the tongue
Wider at the end in dogs and horses
Pointed in ox, sheep, pig
Ruminants have a torus linguae (mound on caudal part of tongue that pushes food against hard palate)
Soft texture in horse, pig, dog. Rough in cat and ruminant
Dogs have a median sulcus and lyssa (fibrous worm-shaped structure) on ventral tip
Which cranial nerves arise from pharyngeal arch 4?
Vagus and accessory
Which cranial nerve originates from pharyngeal arch 3?
What is the function of the geniohyoid muscles?
What innervates them?
Pull the hyoid apparatus and tongue forward
What is the function of the sternohyoid muscles?
What innervates them?
Pull the hyoid and tongue caudally
What kind of epithelium lines the tongue?
Stratified squamous keratinised
Where is the soft palate located?
Extends from the caudal edge of the hard palate to the epiglottis
What are the 4 major muscles of the soft palate?
Palatinus- shortens soft palate
Levator veli palatini- elevates soft palate
Tensor veli palatini- tenses soft palate
Palatopharyngeus- closes pharygopalatine arch and elevates soft palate
What are the 2 roles of the larynx?
Primary= protect the lower respiratory tract from foreign bodies
Secondary= phonation (voice production)
How many pairs of laryngeal muscles are there?
7 pairs close the glottis
1 pair opens the glottis
What is the function of cricoarytenoideus dorsalis?
Abducts the arytenoids and opens the glottis
What are the muscles of the larynx innervated by?
Recurrent laryngeal nerve, except cricothyroid muscles (cranial laryngeal nerve)
What do you use to block nerves in an equine nerve block?
Local anaesthetics eg lidocaine
Where does the guttural pouch drain into?
Nerve supply to the lungs is via what?
Pulmonary plexus within the mediastinum
It consists of sympathetic fibres largely from the stellate ganglion, and parasympathetic fibres from the vagus nerve
How does the frontal sinus communicate with the caudal maxillary sinus?
Which sinus is present in the caudal maxillary sinus?
Nociception only becomes pain when it reaches what?
Where do first order neurones synapse?
In the substantia gelatinosa (lamina II) of the grey matter of the spinal cord
What would you see with azotaemia?
Increased blood urea
Increased blood creatinine
What is the primary function of beta blockers?
Decrease heart contractility