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Year 2 Semester 2 > SPOT/OSPE Revision > Flashcards

Flashcards in SPOT/OSPE Revision Deck (225)
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151

Where does food pass in the ruminant?

Rumen -> reticulum -> omasum -> abomasum (equivalent to simple stomach) -> duodenum

152

What is located on the right side of the ruminant abdomen?

Colon, jejunum, omasum, abomasum, liver

153

What is located on the left side of the ruminant abdomen?

Rumen, reticulum

154

What do parietal cells produce?

HCl

155

What is the role of orbicularis oculi?

Close the eye and so sweep tears across the front of the eye, keeping it clean and moist. If this fails to work, corneal ulcers will develop.

156

What is entropian?
What is ectropian?

Entropian=inward rolling of the eyelid margin. Can affect upper or lower lids.
Ectropian=eversion of the eyelid margin, typically the lower one.

157

Which nerve supplies the lacrimal gland?

Facial

158

Where do secretions from the lacrimal gland drain?

Nasal cavity
Lacrimal gland -> lacrimal sac -> naso-lacrimal duct -> nasal cavity

159

Discuss some species differences regarding the tongue

Wider at the end in dogs and horses
Pointed in ox, sheep, pig
Ruminants have a torus linguae (mound on caudal part of tongue that pushes food against hard palate)
Soft texture in horse, pig, dog. Rough in cat and ruminant
Dogs have a median sulcus and lyssa (fibrous worm-shaped structure) on ventral tip

160

Which cranial nerves arise from pharyngeal arch 4?

Vagus and accessory

161

Which cranial nerve originates from pharyngeal arch 3?

Glossopharyngeal

162

What is the function of the geniohyoid muscles?
What innervates them?

Paired
Pull the hyoid apparatus and tongue forward
Hypoglossal

163

What is the function of the sternohyoid muscles?
What innervates them?

Paired
Pull the hyoid and tongue caudally
Cervical nerves

164

What kind of epithelium lines the tongue?

Stratified squamous keratinised

165

Where is the soft palate located?

Extends from the caudal edge of the hard palate to the epiglottis

166

What are the 4 major muscles of the soft palate?

Palatinus- shortens soft palate
Levator veli palatini- elevates soft palate
Tensor veli palatini- tenses soft palate
Palatopharyngeus- closes pharygopalatine arch and elevates soft palate

167

What are the 2 roles of the larynx?

Primary= protect the lower respiratory tract from foreign bodies
Secondary= phonation (voice production)

168

How many pairs of laryngeal muscles are there?

8
7 pairs close the glottis
1 pair opens the glottis

169

What is the function of cricoarytenoideus dorsalis?

Abducts the arytenoids and opens the glottis

170

What are the muscles of the larynx innervated by?

Recurrent laryngeal nerve, except cricothyroid muscles (cranial laryngeal nerve)

171

What do you use to block nerves in an equine nerve block?

Local anaesthetics eg lidocaine

172

Where does the guttural pouch drain into?

Pharnyx

173

Nerve supply to the lungs is via what?

Pulmonary plexus within the mediastinum
It consists of sympathetic fibres largely from the stellate ganglion, and parasympathetic fibres from the vagus nerve

174

How does the frontal sinus communicate with the caudal maxillary sinus?

Fronto-maxillary opening

175

Which sinus is present in the caudal maxillary sinus?

Sphenoid sinus

176

Nociception only becomes pain when it reaches what?

Thalamus

177

Where do first order neurones synapse?

In the substantia gelatinosa (lamina II) of the grey matter of the spinal cord

178

What would you see with azotaemia?

Increased blood urea
Increased blood creatinine

179

What is the primary function of beta blockers?

Decrease heart contractility

180

Give the 2 upper respiratory breath sounds

Stertor (inspiratory)
Stridor (expiratory)