Study guide (Ch. 6-8) Flashcards Preview

Matthew 2014-15 (History) > Study guide (Ch. 6-8) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Study guide (Ch. 6-8) Deck (87):
1

Veto

a constitutional right to reject a decision or proposal made by a law-making body

2

2nd Amendment

right to bear arms

3

April 18-19, 1775 -- The revolutionary war begins with _______________

The battle of Lexington.

4

Declaration of independence

July 4 1776

5

The battle of Lexington.

April 18-19, 1775 -- The revolutionary war begins with _______________

6

Articles of Confederation finally go into effect (they had been sent to the states for ratification in 1777)

March 1st, 1781

7

The British army at Yorktown surrenders to George Washington.

The battle of Yorktown. October 19st, 1781

8

In 1776, he published Common Sense, a strong defense of American Independence from England.

Thomas Paine

9

The year the Treaty of Paris was signed

1783

10

The period when the Philadelphia convention (a.k.a., the " Constitutional Convention") met and wrote the U.S. Constitution

Summer 1787

11

Year the Bills of Rights was added to the Constitution

1791

12

Double jeopardy

Illegal act of trying a person twice for the same crime.

13

Eminent domain

the right of a government to take personal property to further the public good.

14

Executive order

Non-legislative directive issued by the U.S. president in certain circumstances; An executive order has the force of congressional law.

15

Freedom from punishment

Pardon

16

Impeach

to vote to bring charges against

17

Non-legislative directive issued by the U.S. president in certain circumstances; It has the force of congressional law.

Executive order

18

Cabinet

Group made up of the heads of the executive departments that advises the U.S. President.

19

The use of population to determine how many legislative representative an area will have.

apportionment

20

Elastic clause

Article 1, Section 8, of the Constitution that has been interpreted as giving Congress authority to stretch its delegated powers to address issues not otherwise specified in the document.

21

Delegated powers

Powers that are specifically granted to the federal government by the Constitution.

22

Reserved powers

Powers restrained by the state governments or by citizens .

23

Concurrent powers

Powers that are shared by the Federal and State governments

24

Amendments

Official changes, corrections, or additions to a law or constitution.

25

Ratification

Formal approval

26

Three-fifths compromise

(1787) Agreement worked out at the constitutional Convention stating that three fifths of the slaves in each state should be counted as part of the state's population for determining representation in the lower house of Congress

27

Great compromise

the compromise between the New Jersey and Virginia plans formulated by the Connecticut delegates at the Constitutional Convention; called for a lower legislative house based on population size and an upper house based on equal representation of the states.

28

Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.

Thomas Jefferson

29

the document recording the proclamation of the Second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain

Declaration of Independence

30

(other battle a battle in the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War, was fought on October 4, 1777, at this place, Pennsylvania. The British victory in this battle ensured that Philadelphia, the capital of the self-proclaimed United States of America, would remain in British hands throughout the winter of 1777-1778.

Battles of Brandywine Creek and Germantown

31

A week after the Battle at Trenton, Washington left a few men to tend some campfires and fool the enemy again. He quietly marched his army to _______, where they surprised and beat a British force. New Jersey turned Patriot. This battle helped the American morale.

Battle of Princeton

32

to vote to bring charges against

Impeach

33

apportionment

The use of population to determine how many legislative representative an area will have.

34

Article 1, Section 8, of the Constitution that has been interpreted as giving Congress authority to stretch its delegated powers to address issues not otherwise specified in the document.

Elastic clause

35

Plan for government proposed a that Constitutional Convention in which the National Government would have three branches -- Executive, judicial, and legislative; representation in the legislature would be determined by state population.

Virginia Plan

36

Proposal to create an unicameral government with representation by state rather than by population; REJECTED at the Constitutional Convention.

New Jersey plan

37

Suffrage

Voting rights

38

Separation of powers

The division of governmental power into distinct areas with different branches of government exercising different powers; prevents one branch from becoming too powerful.

39

Checks and balances

A system stablished by the constitution that prevents any branch of government from becoming too powerful.

40

Federalism

System of government in which power is distributed between a central authority and individual states.

41

Popular Sovereignty

The idea that political authority belongs to the people; principle that would allow voters in a particular territory to decide whether to band a permit to slavery.

42

On Christmas day at night, Washington's soldiers began crossing the Deleware River. The next morning, they surprise attacked the British mercenaries which were Hessians.

Battle of Trenton (1776)

43

first battle outside of Concord, british attempted to capture patriot leaders Adams and Hancock, start of revolutionary war

Battle of lexington

44

First major battle of the Revolutions. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths.

Battle of Bunker Hill

45

The division of governmental power into distinct areas with different branches of government exercising different powers; prevents one branch from becoming too powerful.

Separation of powers

46

A system stablished by the constitution that prevents any branch of government from becoming too powerful.

Checks and balances

47

The idea that political authority belongs to the people; principle that would allow voters in a particular territory to decide whether to band a permit to slavery.

Popular Sovereignty

48

Limited government

A political principles which holds the government should be bound by laws that limits its power.

49

Republicanism

support for a system of representative government known as a republic.

50

Constitution

a set of basic principles that determines the powers and duties of a government.

51

Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population

Virginia Plan

52

Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.

53

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Federal order that divided the Northwest Territory into smaller territories and created a plan for how the territories could become states.

54

Virginia Plan

Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population

55

The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.

Bill of Rights

56

Virginia Statue for Religious Freedom

laws that separation church and state, statement of religious liberty, written by Thomas Jefferson

57

a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name "publius") published in NY newspapers and used to convice readers to adopt the new constitution

Federalist Papers

58

Federal order that divided the Northwest Territory into smaller territories and created a plan for how the territories could become states.

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

59

U.S Constitution

The government of the United States. A set of principles (guidelines) that describe the duties and powers of the government.

60

Federalist Papers

a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name "publius") published in NY newspapers and used to convice readers to adopt the new constitution

61

Articles of Confederation

the document that created the first central government for the United States; it was replaced by the Constitution in 1789

62

Treaty Between England and the Colonies , formally ended the American Revolutionary War

Treaty of Paris of 1783

63

a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation

Common Sense

64

a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name "publius") published in NY newspapers and used to convice readers to adopt the new constitution

Federalist Papers

65

Lord Dunmore's Proclamation

statement issued by Virginias royal governor promising freedom to any slave who fought for the British in the American Revolution

66

Olive Branch Petition

An offer of peace sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George lll

67

Alexander Hamilton

Delegate to the Constitutional Convention and leader of the Federalists; first secretary of the treasury.

68

James Madison

A co-author of the Federalist Papers, he was an influential delegate of the Constitutional Convention later to be called the Father of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. By writing the Bill of Rights, he secured the faith of those who were not sure about the Constitution.

69

statement issued by Virginias royal governor promising freedom to any slave who fought for the British in the American Revolution

Lord Dunmore's Proclamation

70

George Mason

American Revolutionary leader from Virginia whose objections led to the drafting of the Bill of Rights

71

Francis Marion

most famous guerilla leader during the American Revolution; known as "the swamp fox"

72

John Paul Jones

American naval commander in the American Revolution (1747-1792) said " I have not yet begun to fight."

73

George Rogers Clark

the patriot who seized British forts on the southwestern frontier

74

Marquis de Lafayette

French soldier who served under George Washington in the American Revolution (1757-1834)

75

Thomas Paine

Wrote Common Sense

76

Thomas Jefferson

He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.

77

Benjamin Franklin

American patriot, writer, printer, and inventor. During the Revolutionary War he persuaded the French to help the colonists.

78

George Washington

Commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War

79

Battle of Vincennes

French town that surrendered to Clark's army but was recaptured by British without a fight; after a bloody battle, the town was once again in Patriot's hands Feb. 23 1779

80

Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.

Battle of Yorktown

81

Battle of Saratoga

Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.

82

Battle of Brandywine Creek

September 11, 1777; Howe vs. Washington; Patriots lost because of miscommunication; Howe allowed colonists to retreat but Howe was able to take Philadelphia

83

Battle of Princeton

A week after the Battle at Trenton, Washington left a few men to tend some campfires and fool the enemy again. He quietly marched his army to Princeton, where they suprised and beat a British force. New Jersey turned Patriot. This battle helped the American morale.

84

French town that surrendered to Clark's army but was recaptured by British without a fight; after a bloody battle, the town was once again in Patriot's hands Feb. 23 1779

Battle of Vincennes

85

Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.

Battle of Saratoga

86

Battle of Yorktown

Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.

87

Battle of Bunker Hill

First major battle of the Revolutions. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths.