Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

Matthew 2014-15 (History) > Chapter 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (75):
1

True or False
Depending on who held their charter, the colonies fell into three categories: proprietary, company, or royal.

True
Each of the original thirteen colonies operated independently of one another. Depending on who held their charter, colonies fell into three categories: proprietary, company, or royal.

2

True or False
A group of royal advisers called the Colonial Court set policy for the thirteen colonies.

False.
The power to grant charters belonged to the English monarch. A group of royal advisers called the Privy Council set policy for the thirteen colonies.

3

True or False
Each colony had a governor, who served as head of the colony's government.

True
Although the Privy Council established English colonial policies, the colonies mostly governed themselves. Each colony had a governor, who served as head of the colony's government.

4

True or False
Colonial assemblies were modeled on Parliament, which is a one-house legislature.

False
The colonies' assemblies were modeled on the English Parliament, or national legislature. Parliament has a bicameral legislature--a lawmaking body made up of two houses.

5

Their harsh climate and rocky soil created little demand for large numbers of farm laborers.

New England colonies.
Most New England farmers faced a difficult agricultural environment. Their climate was harsh and the soil was rocky. They therefore had little demand for large numbers of farm laborers.

6

They passed laws to control slaves, who worked their land.

southern colonies
By the 1700s enslaved Africans were the main labor force. Most of the southern colonies passed slave codes, or laws to control slaves.

7

They relied on agriculture and raw materials for their economic base.

Souther Colonies
The southern economy relied on agriculture and raw materials. They based their agricultural economy on the production of cash crops--crops grown mainly to be sold for profits.

8

Souther Colonies economy

The southern economy relied on agriculture and raw materials. They based their agricultural economy on the production of cash crops--crops grown mainly to be sold for profits.

9

Depending on who held their charter, colonies fell into three categories:

proprietary, company, or royal.

10

King James believed that the colonies had too much independence. So what did he do?

He began suspending the colonies' original charters. In 1686 he united the New England colonies under one government.

11

Name 2 effects that resulted in society as a result of the Great Awakening:

1) political life in the colonies was affected

2) Despite religious differences created by the Great Awakening, this widespread and popular movement attracted many people of different classes and races.

12

Time period during which the Great Awakening took place:

it took place during the 1730s and 1740s.

13

British Minister that made seven trips to the American colonies, touring from the South on through New England. His revivals drew crowds of thousands.

George Whitefield

14

In 1741 who gave a famous sermon entitled, "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God."

Jonathan Edwards

15

In the New England colonies, followers of the Great Awakening were called:

New Lights

16

In the New England colonies the traditionalists, those who rejected the Great Awakening movement, were called:

old lights

17

In the middle colonies the Presbyterian Church split into two groups. Those who opposed the Great Awakening were known as:

old sides

18

In the middle colonies the Presbyterian Church split into two groups. Those who supported the Great Awakening were known as:

New sides

19

In the southern colonies, the Great Awakening inspired:

a tremendous growth in church membership, much of which took place among Baptist and Methodist groups.

20

Presbyterian minister that attacked the traditionalists and thanks to his efforts the Presbyterian church split into 2 groups with opposing views "Old side" and "New Side"

Gilbert Tennent

21

Jonathan Edwards

In 1741 who gave a famous sermon entitled, "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God."

22

Gilbert Tennent

Presbyterian minister that attacked the traditionalists and thanks to his efforts the Presbyterian church split into 2 groups with opposing views "Old side" and "New Side"

23

Revivals

Emotional gatherings where people came together to hear sermons and declare their faith.

24

staple crops

crops that are always needed. middle colonies grew staple crops.

25

Apprentices

Young boys who learned skilled trades.

26

Slave codes

Laws to control slaves

27

Cash crops

crops sell for profit

28

Their good growing season and fertile soil allowed them to produce surpluses of foodstuffs for export.

The middle colonies
The middle colonies had a good growing season and plenty of fertile land, thus producing surpluses of foodstuffs.

29

They based their agricultural economy on cash crops.

The southern colonies based their agricultural economy on the production of cash crops--crops grown mainly to be sold for profits. The primary cash crops were tobacco, rice, and indigo.

30

Two of their leading industries were fishing and shipbuilding.

New England colonies.
In the New England colonies, rich fishing waters and abundant timber made fishing and shipbuilding two of the leading industries.

31

By the 1700s their main labor force was made up of enslaved Africans, who worked for life.

The southern colonies' cash crops required a great deal of difficult work and a large labor force. By the 1700s enslaved Africans were the main labor force.

32

Their staple crops included wheat, barley, and oats.

middle colonies
The staple crops of the middle colonies included wheat, barley, and oats. These crops were continuously in demand.

33

What was the primary cash crops of the southern colonies

tobacco, rice, and indigo.

34

The staple crops of the middle colonies were:

wheat, barley, and oats. These crops were continuously in demand.

35

Their diverse economy demanded the labor of many skilled craftspeople, to whom families sent younger sons for training.

New England
The diverse economy of the New England colonies demanded the labor of many skilled craftspeople. Much of this labor was provided by the domestic population.

36

Indentured servants largely filled their growing labor needs.

middle colonies

37

Small farms as well as large plantations contributed to their economy

Southern Colonies
Small farms as well as large plantations supported the southern agricultural economy, which benefitted from a warm climate and long growing season.

38

What supported southern agricultural economy,

Small farms as well as large plantations.
They which benefitted from a warm climate and long growing season.

39

Whenever possible, what did colonists used to extend their control over local affairs.

the courts

40

A court case involving John Peter Zenger established colonists' right to

freedom of the press.

41

True or False
The case of John Peter Zenger established colonists' right to freedom of religion.

False
A court case involving John Peter Zenger established colonists' right to freedom of the press.

42

John Peter Zenger

A court case involving John Peter Zenger established colonists' right to freedom of the press.

43

In addition to having legislatures, New England colonies developed a tradition of holding:

annual town meetings to decide important issues.

44

annual town meetings

In addition to having legislatures, New England colonies developed a tradition of holding annual town meetings to decide important issues.

45

Colonial assemblies had the power to:
1)
2)
3)

1) raise taxes,
2) organize local governments, and
3) control the military.

46

The first assembly formed in the English colonies met in

Jamestown, Virginia in 1619.

47

Describe The colonies' assemblies

The colonies' assemblies were modeled on the English Parliament, or national legislature.
Parliament has a bicameral legislature--a lawmaking body made up of two houses.

48

Describe the Parliament composition.

Parliament has a bicameral legislature--a lawmaking body made up of two houses.

49

Olaudah Equiano

was a slave who was sold into slavery when he was about 11. He described life under the decks of the slave ships

50

A slave who was sold into slavery when he was about 11. He described life under the decks of the slave ships

Olaudah Equiano

51

Middle passage

was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade.

52

Triangular trade

The triangular trading system is the transatlantic slave trade, carrying slaves, cash crops, and manufactured goods between West Africa, Caribbean or American colonies and the European colonial powers.

53

Free enterprise

1) Economic competition with little government control.

54

Why were the Middle Colonies referred to as the "Bread Basket" of the colonies?

Because they grew wheat, corn, barley, rye, oats.

55

Mercantilism

Economic system that helped nations create and maintain wealth by carefully controlling trade.

56

Balance of trade

The country had fewer imports than exports

57

Imports

goods bought from another countries.

58

Exports

Goods sold to another country.

59

Navigation acts

Between 1650 and 1696 Parliament passed a series of Navigation acts. These acts required colonists to do the bulk of their trading with England.

60

Duties

Import taxes on some trade products, set by the Navigation Acts.

61

"To use me, you must carefully examine natural events and then form theories from your experiments and observations. What am I?"

Scientific method

62

Leading figure in the Scientific Revolution. He demonstrated that the planets revolve around the Sun

Galileo Galilei

63

In the 1600s he explained how objects on Earth and in the sky behaved. His theories proved that the same laws of physics govern both.

Isaac Newton

64

Scientific method

Scientific method requires that Scientists carefully examine natural events and then form theories from your experiments and observations.

65

Enlightenment

The Age of Reason. Enlightenment philosophers used reason and logic. They studied human nature and suggested ways to improve the world.

66

Philosopher that believed that people had natural rights such as equality and liberty.
He stated that people should obey their rulers only if the state protected their life, liberty, and property.

John Locke

67

3 thinkers formed ideas about how government should work to best serve the people.

1) Jean-Jacques Rousseau
2) Voltaire
3) Baron the Montesquieu.

68

A free african American who lived in Maryland. He was an astronomer and surveyor. In 1789 he predicted a solar eclipse (when the moon passes in front of the sun)

Benjamin Banneker.

69

The second president of the American Philosophical Society. He designed mathematical and astronomical instruments.

David Rittenhouse

70

David Rittenhouse

The second president of the American Philosophical Society. He designed mathematical and astronomical instruments.

71

+) Most famous colonial scientist. He was born in Boston 1706 and worked in his father's candle and soap shop.
+) In his mid-20s he started a newspaper, which was the most successful paper in the colonies.
+) Published "Poor Richard's Almanack"
+) Invented the lighting rod (this reduced the risk of fire started by electrical storms)
+) Invented the bifocals --> eyeglasses that corrected both near- and farsightedness.
+) He didn't take out patents of his work because he wanted everyone to benefit from his good ideas.
+) Flew a kite during a thunderstorm.
+) found the positive and negative charges.

Benjamin Franklin

72

Anne Bradstreet:

a New England poet who wrote about her love for her family and her faith. Her poetry was published in “The Tenth Muse” in London 1650.

73

Phillis Wheatley:

She was a poet who also used religious language and imagery in her poetry. In “On Being Brought from Africa to America” Wheatley describes how Christianity changed her life.

74

She was a poet who also used religious language and imagery in her poetry. In “On Being Brought from Africa to America” she describes how Christianity changed her life.

Phillis Wheatley:

75

a New England poet who wrote about her love for her family and her faith. Her poetry was published in “The Tenth Muse” in London 1650.

Anne Bradstreet: