home to many Indian tribes e.g. Sioux, Cheyenne
People began crossing over and pushing Indians out of the great plains by the Treaty of ________ _________ This allowed Americans to build forts and roads in the plains
People began crossing over and pushing Indians out of the great plains by the Treaty of fort Laramie
This allowed Americans to build forts and roads in the plains
The two most important animals to the Plains
Horse and buffalo
Why didn't The treaties last long?
The treaties did not last long since gold was discovered in Colorado which brought 1000s of miners
Federal lands set aside for American Indians. Some Indians didn’t want them leading up to a massacre (sand creek)
An Indian chief who ambushed 81 cavalry troops killing them all
agreement between the U.S government and southern Plains Indians in which Indians agreed to move on reservation, some rebelled however Americans put down this rebellion
Treaty of medicine lodge-
a U.S. military leader who’s men found gold in the plains which lead to the U.S. to insist to sell their land, fought at little bighorn
George Armstrong Custer-
a Sioux leader that protested these new demands, fought at little bighorn.
Other Indians listened to him and fighting broke out, Custer was at the head of the U.S. 7th cavalry
battle between U.S. soldiers led by Custer against Sioux warriors led by crazy horse and sitting bull, worst defeat for the U.S. army in the west
a religious movement among plains Indians in the 1880’s
Massacre at wounded knee- U.S. army’s killing of 150 Sioux at wounded knee creek at South Dakota ending the wars on the plains
U.S. army’s killing of 150 Sioux at wounded knee creek at South Dakota ending the wars on the plains
Massacre at wounded knee-
legislation past by congress that split up Indian reservation’s lands among individual Indians and promised citizenship.
Dawes General Allotment act-
Nevada gold and silver deposit discovered by Henry Comstock in 1859 produced $500 million worth
- a large deposit of precious ore
- Mining was a dangerous job e.g. collapses, deadly gases, and wall-less elevator platforms
Western communities that grew quickly because of the mining boom.
A company founded in 1860, which used a system of messengers on horseback to carry mail between relay stations on a route about 2,000 miles long.
When was the transcontinental railroad built and who built it?
- The railroad was built in 6 years.
- Two companies competed to lay as much track as possible. The Central Pacific built east from Sacramento, Calif., while the Union Pacific built west from Omaha, Neb.
- The first spikes were driven in 1863, in the midst of the Civil War. On May 10, 1869, at Promontory Summit, Utah, a golden spike was hammered into the final tie between the 2 companies.
The railroad's part-owner of the Central Pacific Railroad
A set of federal government acts made in 1862 and 1864, which gave railroad companies loans and large land grants, which could be sold to pay for construction costs.
the Pacific Railway Acts
What replaced the Pony Express?
- Telegraph lines build and
- the railroad
Impacts of Transcontinental Railroad
- Improve communication, travel, and supply movement.
- Connected the East and the West.
- -increased both economic and population growth in the west as it provided better transportation for people and goods
- provided land for sale in the West
- -helped businesses like timber and mining and eastern businesses ship goods to newly formed markets in the West
- -became the biggest industry in the US.
In 1859 a miner discovered a huge deposit of gold and silver in Nevada that became called the
Comstock Lode -
communities that grew suddenly when a mine opened.
a large deposit of precious ore.
a situation or event that creates a sudden increase in wealth, good fortune, or profits.
what was The most popular breed of cattle ?
Clue: This cattle breed spread quickly throughout western Texas. Because these animals needed very little water and could survive harsh weather, they were well- suited to the dry, desert-like environment of western Texas.
It was the longhorn.
The Great Plains from Texas to Canada, where many ranchers raised cattle in the late 1800s, became known as the _____________ _______________. Ranchers grazed huge herds on public land
- the business plan that led to the explosion of the cattle industry,
- who came up with the plan,
In 1867 businessman Joseph McCoy discovered a solution for Texas ranchers move the longhorns to eastern markets . He built pens for cattle in the small town of Abilene, Kansas.
Method cowboys used to move large herds of cattle north from ranches in Texas towns along Rail Road in late 1800's.
A vast area of grassland owned by the federal government where ranchers could graze their herds for free.
rights to water sources on the Great Plains; ranchers bought these rights to give them exclusive control of both the water and the land around it.
Act of driving cattle together and collecting them into a heard
The most heavily use route for moving cattle. It headed north from San Antonio, Texas, to Dodge City, Kansas
- Mexican cowboys in the west who tended cattle and horses.
- What did American cowboys borrowed from them
- They borrowed many techniques and tools from vaqueros
Examples of cattle towns and what was life like in these towns
San Antonio, Texas and Abilene, Kansas,
At times, rowdy cowboys made life in cattle towns rough and violent. And disorderly behavior
- Conflicts on the range
- the invention that led to the fencing of the range,
- Mention the various parties to the range wars and why they fough
- As the cattle business boomed, ranchers faced more competition for use of the open range. Farmers began to buy range land on the Great Plains where cattle had once grazed.
- the invention of barbed wire allowed westerners to fence off large amounts of land cheaply.
- The competition between farmers, large ranchers, and small ranchers increased. This competition led to range wars, or fights for access to land.
gave gov't owned land to small farmers any adult who was a citizen or was going to become one could recieve 160 acres of land for a small registration fee promised to live on land for 5 years opened the west to settlers, especially immigrants
The Homestead Act
granted more than 17 billion acres of gov't land to states this act made the states sell land to build colleges to teach arigiculture and engineering, such as Texas A&M opened the west to settlers
a new farming method Great Plains farmers used hardier crops instead of water dependent ones they left part of the field unplanted to conserve water helped farmers make it through drought years and continue to farm
nickname of farmers on Plains for breaking up the tough sod to plant their crops
What new technologies made possible farming
on the Plains?
- John Deere invented a deep steelplow that made it possibleto break through the sod, or hard soil
The major new sources of power that came into
use in the 2 nd Industrial Revolution