Chapter 12 Flashcards Preview

Matthew 2014-15 (History) > Chapter 12 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (47):
1

a system that brought workers and machinery together in one place to produce goods

factory system

2

a system that brought workers and machinery together in one place to produce goods

factory system

3

identical, machine-made parts for a tool or instrument that can be used in place of one another

interchangeable parts

4

the process of removing impurities from iron to make steel by blasting the melted iron with hot air; made stronger steel at a lower cost

Bessemer steel process

5

ship moved by engines that work by the action of steam under pressure

steamboat

6

a device that sent electrical signals along a wire; the signals were based on a code of dots, dashes, and spaces (the Morse code)

telegraph

7

By the 1850s, this was the fastest, easiest, and cheapest way to ship good in the North. Powered by the steam engine.

Railroads

8

an engine with two rollers and thin wire teeth; when cotton swept between the rollers, the teeth separated the seeds from the fibers. Invented

cotton gin

9

What impact did industrialism have on cities?

Cities began to grow rapidly which caused problems with overcrowding and pollution. Immigration also increased as people came to the United States looking for factory jobs.

10

What event forced America to begin their own factory system?

The blockade of ports by the English during the War of 1812

11

What was a negative impact of urbanization, industrialization, and the increase in the use of railroads and steamboats?

Pollution

12

A type of economic system where people determine what is produced, how it is produced, and what it will cost

Free enterprise

13

True or False. Immigration, pollution, and the division of the social classes all decreased following urbanization.

FALSE

14

What term means to create something new?

innovation

15

Which term means the rapid growth of cities and/or the shift in population from rural to urban areas?

urbanization

16

What innovation was the most important to the growth of industry?

steam engine (or steam power)

17

How did the Industrial Revolution impact slavery?

The dependence on slave labor increased with the invention of new machines.

18

How did the Industrial Revolution impact the cultural diversity of the United States?

Many immigrants came here looking for jobs which changed the cultural makeup of the United States.

19

Why was the South so successful in using the plantation system?

Fertile soil, warm climate, the use of slave labor, and new inventions like the cotton gin make farming very profitable in the South

20

Which innovation allowed boats to travel upstream?

Steamboat

21

Which innovation made steel easier, lighter, and cheaper to produce?

Bessemer Steel Process

22

Which region of the United States was the most populated during this time period? (North, South, or West)

North

23

Which region of the United States was the least populated during this time period? (North, South, or West)

West

24

Which innovations made transportation easier during this time period?

Canals, steamboats, railroads

25

Which innovations made communication easier during this time period?

Telegraph and canals (sped up the exchange of ideas and news in the North)

26

What was constructed beginning in 1817 that greatly sped up the transfer of goods and people in the North?

Erie Canal

27

What does a factory need to be successful?

Investment capital (money), natural resources, buildings and machines, a large labor force, and a way to transport goods

28

Who invented the cotton gin? (should also know how this changed life in the United States which is it made cotton the cash crop of the South and greatly increased the need for slave labor)

Eli Whitney

29

Created the telegraph

Samuel Morse

30

Cyrus McCormick's invention that allowed large amounts of crops to be harvested quickly

Mechanical Reaper

31

Which industry was the first to industrialize?

Textile mills

32

Who were the most common workers at textile mills?

Women (and children as well)

33

How did industrialization change life for women?

They began working outside the home in large numbers. Women moved away from their families and settled in the cities alone. Women were not treated well in the factories and their low wages and poor treatment set the stage for the women's rights movement and labor reforms.

34

period of rapid growth using machines

Industrial revolution

35

young women working at Lowell textile mills for 4 years - 14 hours in dusty and dangerous conditions

Lowell System

36

Toured the British textile mills in 1810. Made sketches of what he observed. Returned to America and improved Slater's cotton spinning machine. Opened first integrated cotton mil in Waltham, MA in 1814. Lowell Mills in 1823 in Lowell, MA.

Francis Cabot Lowell

37

Term referring to a series of nineteenth century transportation innovations-turnpikes, steamboats, canals and railroads-that linked local and regional markets, further connecting different regions of the country.

Transportation Revolution

38

This man invented the first commercially successful steamboat in the United States.

Robert Fulton

39

Created the first sewing machine in 1851.

Isaac Singer

40

Created the first steel plow in 1837. Cut the plowing time in half.

John Deere

41

The owner of the Tredgar Iron Works.....

Joseph R. Anderson

42

One of the few examples of industrial growth in the South.....

Tredgar Iron Works: large souther factory to make iron products.

43

The wealthiest members of southern society.....

planters

44

Owners of small farms that owned few slaves or none at all.....
And / or
They worked side by side with slaves.....

yeomen

45

White southerners shared this that was central to southern life.....

culture and religion

46

Free African Americans in the South often worked as.....

skilled artisans

47

The most violent slave revolt in the United States that occurred.....

Nat Turner's Rebellion