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Flashcards in T1- Hormone Reg Deck (57)
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What are the organs of the endocrine system?

- Hypothalamus
- Pineal Gland
- Pituitary
- Thyroid
- Parathyroid
- Thymus
- Adrenals
- Pancreas
- Testes
- Ovaries

1

What are the three rates and rhythms of hormone secretion?

Dinurnal, pulsatile and cyclic.

- These operate within feedback systems, affecting only cells with appropriate receptors!

2

Which organ in the body has the ability to inactivate hormones, rendinger the hormone more water soluble for renal excreation?

The lovely LIVER.

3

What are two main causes of hormone release?

1. Response to an alteration in the cellular environment.
2. To maintain a regulated level of certain substances or other hormones.

4

Hormone transport: Differentiate the difference between water and lipid soluble hormones regarding their circulation.

Water-soluble hormones circulate in FREE, UNBOUND forms

Lipid soluble hormones primarily circulate BOUND TO A CARRIER

5

Cellular mechanism of Hormone action: Differentiate between up and down regulation.

Up regulation: low concentrations of hormone INCREASE the number of receptors per cell.

Down regulation: High concentrations of the hormone DECREASE the number of receptors.

6

Where are hormone receptors located?

in or on the plasma membrane or in the intracellular compartment of the target cell

7

Which type of hormone (water-soluble or lipid-soluble) are of high molecular weight and cannot diffuse across the plasma membrane?

Water soluble

8

Which type of hormone (water-soluble or lipid-soluble) easily diffuse across the plasma membrane and bind to _________ or _________ receptors?

lipid-soluble
cytosolic or nuclear

9

Under what type of hormones are both first and second messengers?

water soluble hormones

10

Name 3 water soluble hormones that act as second messengers.

calcium
cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)
cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)

11

Steroid hormones are lipid soluble hormones. What are some of them?

androgens, estrogens, progestins, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, thyroid

12

What do lipid soluble hormones activate?

RNA polymerase
DNA transcription and translation

13

Posterior pituitary hormones are synthesized with binding proteins in ______ and _______ nuclei of the hypothalamus.

supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei

14

What two hormones are secreted by the posterior pituitary?

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) - formerly called vasopressin

Oxytocin

15

Which hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary controls plasma osmolarity

ADH

16

What is the function of oxytocin?

Oxytocin is responsible for uterine contractions and milk ejaculation in lactating women (suggested that it reduces the brain's responsiveness to stressful stimuli, especially in the pregnant and postpartum states)

Use in treatment of anxiety disorders and autism is being explored.

17

Which hormone of the pancreas likely controls the secretion of glucagon?

Gastrin

18

What are the functions of Grehlin from the pancreas?

1. stimulates GH secretion
2. controls appetite
3. regulation of insulin sensitivity

19

___ is released by F cells in response to hypoglycemia and protein-rich meals.

Pancreatic polypeptide

20

Which pancreatic hormone signals satiety, inhibits gallbladder contraction and exocrine pancreas secretion, and increases gastric acid secretion?

pancreatic polypeptide

21

Pancreatic polypeptide is frequently increased in _____.

pancreatic tumors and in diabetes

22

80% of an adrenal gland's total weight is attributed to which section?

adrenal cortex

23

What are the 3 layers of the adrenal cortex?

Zona glomerulosa
Zona fasiculata
Zona reticularis

24

Which region of the adrenal gland is innervated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems?

adrenal medulla

25

The adrenal cortex is stimulated by ____.

ACTH

26

The adrenal cortex releases which hormones?

glucocorticoid hormones
mineralocorticoid hormones
adrenal estrogens and androgens

27

What are the effects of glucocorticoid hormones?

1. direct effects on carbohydrate metabolism
2. anti-inflammatory, growth-suppressing effects
3. influence awareness and sleep habits

28

The most potent naturally occurring glucocorticoid is ____.

cortisol

29

Which hormones of the adrenal cortex affect ion transport by epithelial cells?

mineralocorticoid hormones