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Flashcards in FMS- Ford :) Deck (73)
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1
Q

What nerve innervates the diaphragm and is associated with the fibrous pericardium?

A

Phrenic Nerve

2
Q

The mesothelium of the parietal layer of the body wall is derived from _

A

Somatic Mesoderm

3
Q

The crura of the diaphragm are derived from the

A

Dorsal Mesentary of the esophagus

4
Q

The fibrous pericardium is derived from

A

the pleuropericardial membranes

5
Q

Which of the following are retroperitoneal? (either primary or secondary)?

A

**Kidney ** or is it Kidney and Bladder

6
Q

Which of the following is a herniation through the sternocostal hiatus?

A

retrosternal hernia

7
Q

Which of the following is developed from the first pharyngeal arch?

A

muscles of mastication

8
Q

Which of the following is derived from the second aortic arch?

A

Hyoid artery

9
Q

The thalamus develops from the

A

3rd pharyngeal pouch

10
Q

The cells that produce calcitonin are derived from

A

fourth pharyngeal pouch

11
Q

The middle ear ossicles are derived from

A

First & Second Pharyngeal arch *answer is D on test A&B

12
Q

Which of the following is caused by an autosomal dominant gene and results in malar hypoplasia of zygomatic bones with down slanting palpebral fissures, defect of lower eyelids, deformed external ears and sometimes abnormalities of middle and internal ears?

A

Treacher Collins Syndrome

13
Q

The primary palate is derived (directly) from ?

A

intermaxillary segment - you were right Baleigh

14
Q

The foramen cecum

A

marks the point of embryonic evagination of the thyroid gland

15
Q

A patient is found to have glandular tissue situated in the tongue musculature just superior to the body of the hyoid bone. THe tissue would be most likely to be related to the -

A

Thyroid Gland

16
Q

The sclera is derived from

A

Neural Crest Cells

17
Q

If the retinal (chorioid) tissue fails to close, it may result in

A

Coloboma

18
Q

Microtia is

A

small auricle

19
Q

an increase in CSF pressure slows venous return from the retina & may cause

A

Papilledema

20
Q

Which of the following is an autosomal recessive trait that results in skin that is markedly thickened, ridges and cracked? Most infants with this will die within first week of life

A

Harlequin fetus

21
Q

Melanocytes are derived from

A

Neural Crest Cells

22
Q

The enamel of a tooth is derived from

A

Ectoderm (non-neural ectoderm)

23
Q

At the developing nail is covered by a narrow band of epidermis called the

A

eponchium

24
Q

Excessive harrisness that results from the development of supernumerary hair follicles or from the persistence of lanugo hairs is called

A

hypertrichosis

25
Q

T/F “Flight or fight” occurs in the exhaustion stage in the general adaptation syndrome (GAS)

A

False

26
Q

T/F Cortisol circulates in the plasma free (unbound) and bound to protein.

A

True

27
Q

T/F A person does not have a stress reaction unless the stress exceeds his or her coping abilities.

A

True

28
Q

T/F The decrease in insulin during a stress response prevents glucose from being taken up by peripheral tissue so that more glucose will be available for the CNS.

A

True - I fixed this one too

29
Q

T/F For more catecholamines to be immune suppressive, their levels must be chronically elevated.

A

True

30
Q

T/F Stress and negative emotions have not been associated with the production of increased levels of pro inflammatory cytokines.

A

False

31
Q

T/F Although stress generally inhibits the female reproductive system, it increases the production of testosterone.

A

False

32
Q

T/F Lymphocytes secrete growth hormone (GH), prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and endorphins.

A

True

33
Q

T/F Studies have shown a relationship between depression and reduction in lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer cell activity.

A

True

34
Q

T/F Stress has no effect not the development of cancer.

A

False

35
Q

Exhaustion occurs if stress continues and _____ is not successful

A

adaptation

36
Q

The ____ is stimulated during the alarm phase of the GAS.

A

Hypothalamus

37
Q

During a stress respsonse, increased anxiety vigilance and arousal is promoted by

A

Cortisol

38
Q

Perceived stress elicits emotional, anticipatory response that begins in the

A

limbic system

39
Q

During a stress response, which hormone decreases lymphocytes, eosinophils, and macrophages and prostaglandin?

A

cortisol

40
Q

The effect that low serum albumin has on the central stress response is to

A

impare circulation of epinephrine and norepiniephrine

41
Q

The effect epinephrine has on the immune system during stress response is to increase

A

natural killer cells

42
Q

Stress induced sympathetic stimulation of the adrenal macula causes the secretion of catecholamines, which include:

A

epinephrine & norepinephrine

43
Q

Stress induced norepinephrine results in

A

peripheral vasoconstriction

44
Q

Stress induced cortisol release from the adrenal cortex results in

A

stimulation of gluconeogenesis

45
Q

What is the effect of increased secretion of epinephrine, glucagon, and growth hormone?

A

Hyperglycemia

46
Q

Which hormone increases the formation of glucose from amino acids and free fatty acids?

A

Cortisol

47
Q

Which immune cells are suppressed by corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)?

A

Helper T-cells and monocyte-macrophage cells

48
Q

Which gland regulates the immune response and mediates the apparent effects of circadian rhythms on immunity?

A

pineal gland - yes

49
Q

Which cytokines initiate the production of corticotropin-releasing hormone?

A

IL-1 & IL-6

50
Q

The action of which hormone helps explain increase in affective anxiety and and eating disorders, mood cycles, and vulnerability to auto immune and inflammatory diseases in women as a result of stimulation of the CRH gene promoter and central norepinephrine system?

A

Estrogen

51
Q

What effect does estrogen have on lymphocytes?

A

Depression of T cells and Enhancement of B cells

52
Q

Which statement is true about the differences in stress induced hormonal alterations of men and women?

A

Androgens appear to reduce a greater degree immune cells apoptosis, following injury, creating a greater immunosuppresion in injured men than women

53
Q

What effect do androgens have on lymphocytes?

A

Suppression of B & T cells

54
Q

Stress age syndrome results in a decrease

A

immune system

55
Q

A virus can produce diseases from a variety of mechanisms. Which of the following mechanisms is least likely?

A

Production of exotoxins that activates adenylate cylase

56
Q

The control of rhinovirus URTI’s by immunization is limited due to ?

A

The large number of serotypes of the rhinovirus - yes

57
Q

WHich of the following is the best explanation of the selective action of acyclovir in HSV infected cells/

A

Acyclovir is phosphorylated by a virus encoded phosphokinase only within HSV infected cells

58
Q

Herpes simplex virus is a

A

DNA enveloped virus

59
Q

HPV is a

A

DNA nonenveloped virus

60
Q

Which of the following is the most common following a primary HSV infection?

A

establishment of latent infection

61
Q

Dr. Butler. Bit by a bear. Brought to your ER. What do you do next?

A

use hyperimmune serum and active immunization

62
Q

The principle reservoir for antigenic shift variants of influenza virus appears to be

A

animals, especially pigs, horses, and fowl

63
Q

A common cause of virus-associated diarrhea is

A

rotavirus

64
Q

virus associated jaundice

A

Yellow Fever virus

65
Q

a virus associated with congenital abnormalities

A

Rubella Virus

66
Q

a common cause of encephalitis

A

Rabies Virus

67
Q

Respiratory syncitial virus is associated with

A

Bronchiolitus

68
Q

Varicella zoster is associated with

A

Shingles (and chicken pox but for the exam- shingles)

69
Q

Virus associated with mycocarditis and pleurodynia

A

coxsackie virus

70
Q

a virus that cause croup in children

A

parainfluenzia

71
Q

infectious mononucleosis

A

EBV

72
Q

wild birds considered important reservoir is

A

St. Lous Encephalitis

73
Q

Hemorrhagic fever

A

Dengue virus