Chap.20: HormoneNotes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chap.20: HormoneNotes Deck (54)
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0
Q

THe thyroid gland normally produces 90% ____ and 10% ____. In the body tissues, however ____ is converted to ____, and ____ has the greatest metabolic effect!!!
**FILL IN THE BLANKS USING T3 & T4.

A

90% = T4
10% = T3
T4 is converted T3 and T3 has the greatest metabolic effect

1
Q

Where is the pituitary gland located?

A

within the sella turcica of the skull’s sphenoid bone

2
Q

The posterior pituitary thus can be seen as a storage and releasing site for hormones synthesized in the _______.

A

hypothalamus

3
Q

What does not require insulin for glucose transport?

A

Brain & Red Blood Cells

4
Q

The pancreas is located behind the stomach, behind the spleen and the duodenum. It houses the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS!!! What is the function of the islet of Langerhans?

A

secrete glucagon and insulin

5
Q

What inhibits the releases of Growth Hormone and TSH?

A

Somatostatin

6
Q
  1. What exits within the ACTH amino acid sequence?

2. What are derived form Beta-Lipotropin?

A
  1. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

2. Beta-Endorphin & Metenkephalin

7
Q

What are the 3 factors that are primarily involved in regulating the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)?

A
  1. circulating levels of cortisol and synthetic glucocorticoids suppress corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and ACTH, whereas low cortisol levels stimulate their secretion.
  2. Diurnal rhythms affect ACTH and cortisol levels
  3. Stress has been shown to increase ACTH secretion, leading to increased cortisol levels.
8
Q

What are the major products secreted by the medulla of the adrenal gland?

A

Catecholamines, epinephrine (adrenaline) & norepinephrine, although the medulla is only a minor source of norepinephrine

9
Q

What is the effect of ADH have on electrolyte levels?

A

it has no direct effect on electrolyte levels, BUT by increasing WATER REABSORPTION, serum electrolyte concentrations may DECREASE because of a dilutional effect.

10
Q

What is the effect of calcitonin on serum calcium levels?

A

Calcitonin, also called thyrcalcitonin, acts to LOWER serum calcium levels by INHIBITIONOF BONE RESORBING OSTEOCLASTS!!!!
**high levels of calcitonin are required

11
Q

T/F Deficiencies of calcitonin lead to hypocalcemia.

A

FALSE!!!!!!!!! it does NOT lead to hypocalcemia

12
Q

T/F Investigation into the role of the endocrine glands and their interaction in the aging process has generated much data, although the evidence is contradicotry.

A

TRUE

14
Q

What is the overall effect of PTH on serum calcium and serum phosphate concentration?

A

INCREASE serum calcium

DECREASE serum phosphate

15
Q

An example of neural regulation is the release of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla as a result of activation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system in response to ____

A

STRESS

16
Q

What are some examples of a peptide or protein hormone?

A

insulin, pituitary, hypothalamic and parathyroid

17
Q

___ hormones are water soluble and circulate free in the unbound form.

A

peptide/protein hormone

18
Q

What are examples of lipid soluble proteins?

A

cortisol and adrenal androgens

19
Q

__ hormones are circulated bound to a carrier or binding protein.

A

lipid soluble

20
Q

Direct effects are the obvious changes in cell function that specifically results from stimulation by ____

A

a particular hormone

21
Q

In a __ feedback system, plasma levels of one type of hormone influence the level of other types of hormones

A

negative

22
Q

___ hormones easily diffuse across the plasma membrane and bind to either cytosolic or nuclear receptors

A

Lipid-soluble

23
Q

___ molecules are the initial link between the first signal and in the inside of the cell

A

SECOND - MESSENGER

24
Q

What is a great example of a second messenger?

A

Calcium

25
Q

The binding of a hormone to a surface receptor activates the enzyme ___ through a G Protein inside the plasma membrane

A

phospholipase C

26
Q

Name the 2 hormones the posterior pituitary secrete.

A

ADH and Oxytocin

27
Q

In extremely high doses, this hormone cause vasoconstriction and a resulting increase in arterial blood pressure

A

vasopressin/ADH

28
Q

______ secreted by the anterior pituitary stimulates secretion of prolactin.

A

PRF

29
Q

Where is ADH synthesized?

A

hypothalamus

30
Q

ADH acts on the ______ receptors of the renal duct cells to increase their permeability.

A

vasopressin 2 (V2)

31
Q

What two polypeptide hormones does the posterior pituitary secrete?

A

oxytocin and ADH (also called arginine vasopressin)

32
Q

ADH and oxytocin travel to the posterior pituitary by way of ________.

A

hyopthalamohypophysial nerve tract

33
Q

What three things stimulate the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone?

A
  • pituitary TSH
  • LOW serum IODIDE levels
  • drugs interfering with the thyroid glands uptake of IODIDE from the blood
34
Q

The release of norepinephrine stimulates which hormones to be secreted? What hormone is inhibited?

A

Secreted: TSH, GH, LH and FSH

Inhibited: ACTH

35
Q

Hyperphosphatemia leads to ___________.

A

hypercalcemia

36
Q

Insulin’s action in the cells includes the transport of __________, ________, and ________. _______ into the cell is also facilitated.

A

amino acids, potassium, and magnesium

phosphate

37
Q

Stress has been shown to increase ______ secretion.

A

ACTH

38
Q

__________ acts to lower serum calcium levels by inhibition of bone-reabsorbing osteoclasts.

A

Calcitonin aka thyrocalcitonin

39
Q

The parathyroid glands produce ________, a regulator of serum calcium.

A

PTH

40
Q

What is the purpose of TSH?

A

The purpose of TSH is to release stored thyroid hormone.

41
Q

In the kidneys, ______ acts on its plasma membrane receptor in the distal and proximal tubules of the nephron.

A

PTH

42
Q

What are the major products secreted by the adrenal medulla?

A

the catecholamines: epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine

43
Q

_____ is the main regulator of cortisol secretion and adrenocortical growth.

A

ACTH

44
Q

The secretion of cortisol is regulated primarily by the ______ and the ________.

A

hypothalamus

anterior pituitary gland

45
Q

Where is corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) produced and stored?

A

CRH is produced in several nuclei in the hypothalamus and is stored in the median eminence (inferior border of the hypothalamus)

46
Q

Once released, CRH travels through the portal vessels to stimulate the production of _____ from proopiomelanocortin (POMC), beta-lipoprotein, gamma-lipoprotein, endorphins, and enkephalins by the anterior pituitary.

A

ACTH

47
Q

The term ______ refers to those steroid hormones that have direct effects on carbohydrate metabolism.

A

glucocorticoid

48
Q

These hormones increase blood glucose concentration by promoting gluconeogenesis in the liver and by decreasing uptake of glucose into muscle cells, adipose cells, and lymphatic cells.

A

glucocorticoids

49
Q

Aldosterone synthesis and secretion are stiumlated by _________.

A

angiotensin II

50
Q

The conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II is stimulated by the enzyme ___________.

A

angiotensin I-converting enzyme

51
Q

The conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I is stimulated by ________.

A

renin

52
Q

High levels of aldosterone may result in ________ and ________.

A

alkalosis and hypokalemia

53
Q

In the kidney, _______ primarily acts on epithelial cells of the nephron collecting duct to increase sodium ion reabsorption.

A

aldosterone

54
Q

Aging causes overall ______ secretion to diminish.

A

TSH