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What is the most common place for infectious agents to gain access to the body?

The respiratory tract.

This includes (UPPER): mouth, nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx.

Lower: trachea, bronchi, bronchioles lungs, alveoli

1

What acts as part of the defense of the respiratory tract?

- nasal hair
- cilia
- mucous
- involuntary responses (coughing, sneezing, swallowing)
- Macrophages
- Secretory IgA against specific pathogens

2

In which section of the respiratory tract are you more likely to find normal biota?

UPPER respiratory tract.

Gram-positive bacteria is very common here.

3

What is the mechanism by which the normal biota of the upper respiratory tract causes disease?

Cause disease if their host becomes immunocompromised or if they are transferred to other hosts.

4

What are common upper respiratory tract diseases caused by microorganisms?

- Rhinitis (common cold)
- Sinusitis
- Acute Otitis Media
- Pharyngitis
- Diphtheria

5

A patient walks in with symptoms of sneezing, scratchy throat, runny nose for 2-3 days. Mother states the patient does NOT have a fever. What is the most likely diagnosis of this patient?

Rhinitis (common cold)

- Transmission by indirect contacts, droplet contact
- Culture is not necessary
- Treat symptoms only

6

Bitchy Foy has been suffering from rhinitis for the past 7 days. She returns to your clinic continuing to complain (which nobody cares about) of nasal congestion, pressure above the nose/forehead, headache, toothache. She also complains of greenish/yellowish nasal discharge. What is the diagnosis?

Bacterial Sinusitis (due to length of symptoms and greenish/yellowish discharge)

It would be allergic sinusitis if the discharge is clear and may be accompanied by itchy, watery eyes.

7

This disease is a common sequel of rhinitis?

Acute otitis media

- Caused by viral infections of the upper respiratory tract that lead to inflammation of the Eustachian tubes and buildup of fluid in the middle ear.

8

Disease which results from chronic fluid in the middle ear for indefinite periods of time, typically caused by biofilm bacteria.

Chronic otitis media.

9

Gimme dat Becky walks into your clinic complaining of pain and swelling in the back of her throat (can only imagine how this happened). She states symptoms began 3 days ago and are progressively worse. What is the disease, and what are you likely to see on a physical exam?

Swelling, reddened mucosa, swollen tonsils, possible exudate. Pt will possibly have foul-smelling breath. Pt might also experience a hoarse voice.

PHARYNGITIS

10

Dr. Butler states this is the main factor in preventing pharyngitis..

Good hygiene practices.

11

What would you treat Gimme dat Becky with after you make the diagnosis of pharyngitis?

Penicillin, cephalexin in a penicillin allergy patient.

12

What disease is characterized by a sore throat, loss of appetite, low-grade fever? This disease typically has pseudomembrane forming on the tonsils or pharynx.

Diphtheria.

13

What is the common way to prevent Diptheria?

The Diphtheria toxoid vaccine which is part of DTaP.

This disease is caused by droplet contact with direct or indirect contact with contaminated formites.

14

List the diseases (well-known) caused by microorganisms affecting the UPPER and LOWER respiratory tracts.

Whooping cough, Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenze.

15

What is another name for the disease whooping cough?

Pertussis

16

What are the two distinct symptom phases of Whooping cough?

Catarrhal stage:
- After incubation from 3-21 days
- Bacteria in the respiratory tract cause what appear to be cold symptoms.
- This stage lasts 1-2 weeks.

Paroxysmal stage:
- Severe and uncontrollable coughing
- violent coughing spasms can result in burst blood vessels in the eyes.

17

How long does complete recovery take for a patient with Whooping cough?

Weeks-months

18

What organism causes Whooping cough, and what is done to prevent this disease?

Bordetella pertussis: spread by droplet contact.

Acellular vaccine (DTaP), erythromycin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

19

What is the most prevalent cause of respiratory infection in the newborn age group?

RSV- respiratory syncytial virus

20

Baby Winkyfock Ford comes to your clinic with a fever for the past 3 days, with rhinorrhea, recent diagnosis of rhinits, pharyngitis and otitis media. He is now coughing and wheezing. You hear rales when listening to his lungs. What is the diagnosis?

CROUP

-This is a more serious infection which stems from RSV.

21

Little winkyfock Ford is now in middle school and quite the attractive little boy. He started complaining about intense HA, chills, DRY cough, body aches. His mother (the ever so lovely PA) states he also had a fever. What is the likely diagnosis?

Influenza. The symptoms of extreme fatigue can last days to weeks.

22

What is the most common modes of transmission for influenza?

Droplet contact, direct contact, some indirect contact.

23

How to you prevent influenza?

Killed injected vaccine or inhaled live attenuated vacine- taken ANNUALLY.