Ch. 21: Alterations of Hormonal Regulation (Notes) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 21: Alterations of Hormonal Regulation (Notes) Deck (45)
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0
Q

What is the effect of GH on long bone growth called in children and adolescents?

A

giantism

1
Q

What is DI caused by?

A

insufficient secretion of ADH

2
Q

What is the cardinal symptom of SIADH?

A

thirst

3
Q

____ are usually benign, slow-growing tumors.

A

pituitary adenomas

4
Q

What is an autoimmune disease that results in stimulation of the thyroid gland?

A

Graves’ disease

5
Q

Although rare, ____ is the most common endocrine malignancy.

A

thyroid carcinoma

6
Q

T/F: Statistically, type 1 diabetes is more common than type 2.

A

FALSE…Type 2 is more common.

7
Q

What is the most common cause of deficient parathyroid hormone secretion?

A

trauma to the parathyroid gland related to thyroid surgery

8
Q

Type I diabetes involves….whereas type II is related to…..

A

type I - the destruction of pancreatic beta cells

type II - insulin resistance of the body’s tissue cells

9
Q

_____ is characterized by high levels of ADH in the absence of normal physiologic stimuli for its release.

A

SIADH

10
Q

What are the symptoms of SIADH a result of?

A

dilutional hyponatremia and water retention

11
Q

What is a common cause of elevated levels of ADH secretion?

A

ectopically produced ADH

12
Q

DI is a result of ______.

A

insufficient ADH

13
Q

A man with a closed head injury has a urine output of 6 - 8 L/day. Electrolytes are within normal limits but his ADH level is low. Although he has had no intake for 4 hours, there is no change in his polyuria. What are these findings indicative of?

A

neurogenic DI

14
Q

What does a diagnosis of SIADH require?

A
  1. a serum sodium level <280 mOsm/kg

3. urine hyperosmolarity

15
Q

DI, DM, and SIADH all exhibit _____.

A

thirst

16
Q

What is a result of dysfunctional ADH synthesis caused by a lesion of the posterior pituitary, hypothalamus, or pituitary stalk?

A

neurogenic DI

17
Q

____ is associated with an insensitivity of the renal collecting tubules to ADH.

A

Nephrogenic DI

18
Q

What are the basic criteria for diagnosing DI?

A

low urine specific gravity while sodium levels are high

PROTEIN levels are NOT considered*

19
Q

How is neurogenic DI treated?

A

with ADH replacement therapy

20
Q

What is the term correctly associated with the lack of ALL anterior pituitary hormones?

A

panhypopituitarism

21
Q

Pressure on the ____ causes a variety of visual disturbances.

A

optic chiasm

22
Q

The pressure produced by the tumor on neighboring anterior pituitary cells results in the hyposecretion of….

A
  1. GH
  2. Gonadotropins (FSH & LH)
  3. TSH
  4. ACTH
23
Q

What is the terms for adults who have been exposed to continuously high levels of GH?

A

Acromegaly

24
Q

What is the hallmark of a prolactinoma?

A

the sustained elevation of serum prolactin that is responsible for the symptomatology referred to in the stem.

25
Q

The pathology of______indicates that normal regulatory mechanisms are overridden by abnormal immunologic mechanisms that result in the stimulation of excessive TH.

A

Graves’ disease

26
Q

The systemic symptoms of thyrotoxic crisis include….

A

hyperthermia and tachycardia

27
Q

High levels of circulating thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins are found in more than 95% of individuals experiencing_____.

A

Graves’ disease

28
Q

The hyperfunction of the thyroid gland leads to suppression of ____ because of the normal negative feedback mechanism.

A

TSH

29
Q

Graves’ disease is characterized by…

A

a diffused enlargement of the thyroid gland

30
Q

One of the causes of hypothyroidism is….

A

a deficiency of endemic iodine

31
Q

The lower levels of thyroid hormone result in decreased energy metabolism resulting in….

A
  1. constipation
  2. bradycardia
  3. lethargy
32
Q

What is the most common causes of secondary hyperparathyroidism because of the resulting hyperphosphatemia that stimulates PTH secretion?

A

chronic renal failure

33
Q

In hypothyroidism, a lack of circulating PTH causes a _____ resulting in the symptomatology.

A

depressed serum calcium level

34
Q

A man with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has the following lab values: arterial pH 7.20; serum glucose 500 mg/dL; urine glucose and ketones positive; serum K+ 2 mEq/L; serum Na+ 130 mEq/L. He reports that he has been sick with the “flu” for 1 wk. What do you suspect is his problem?

A

decreased glucose use

- this causes increase in fatty acid use, ketogenesis, metabolic acidosis, and osmotic diuresis all of which he has.

35
Q

T/F: Glucose accumulates in the blood and appears in the urine as the renal threshold for glucose is exceeded, producing an osmotic diuresis and the symptoms of polyuria and thirst.

A

TRUE

36
Q

What is one of the basic pathophysiologies of type 2 diabetes?

A

the development of insulin-resistant tissue cells

37
Q

Lila (a pt. with type 1 diabetes) experiences hunger, lightheadedness, tachycardia, pallor, headache, and confusion. the most likely cause of these symptoms is _____, which is often caused by a lack of systemic glucose resulting from muscular activity.

A

hypoglycemia

38
Q

What is the result of a compensatory mechanism directed at eliminating metabolic acidosis?

A

hyperkalemia

39
Q

____ is ONLY seen in DKA.

A

Kussmaul respirations

40
Q

Hypoglycemia followed by rebound hyperglycemia is seen only in_____.

A

the Somogyi effect

41
Q

What is the first manifestation of this form of renal failure? (?? What Butler had)

A

Microalbuminuria

42
Q

What is common in individuals with DM because of increases in LDLs and TGs?

A

Hyperlipidemia

43
Q

What are a result of capillary basement membranes thickening and endothelial cell hyperplasia?

A

Microvascular complications

44
Q

What appears to be a response to retinal ischemia and RBC aggregation?

A

retinopathy