Ch. 21: Alterations of Hormonal Regulation (Notes) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 21: Alterations of Hormonal Regulation (Notes) Deck (45)
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What is DI caused by?

insufficient secretion of ADH

1

What is the effect of GH on long bone growth called in children and adolescents?

giantism

2

What is the cardinal symptom of SIADH?

thirst

3

____ are usually benign, slow-growing tumors.

pituitary adenomas

4

What is an autoimmune disease that results in stimulation of the thyroid gland?

Graves' disease

5

Although rare, ____ is the most common endocrine malignancy.

thyroid carcinoma

6

T/F: Statistically, type 1 diabetes is more common than type 2.

FALSE...Type 2 is more common.

7

What is the most common cause of deficient parathyroid hormone secretion?

trauma to the parathyroid gland related to thyroid surgery

8

Type I diabetes involves....whereas type II is related to.....

type I - the destruction of pancreatic beta cells
type II - insulin resistance of the body's tissue cells

9

_____ is characterized by high levels of ADH in the absence of normal physiologic stimuli for its release.

SIADH

10

What are the symptoms of SIADH a result of?

dilutional hyponatremia and water retention

11

What is a common cause of elevated levels of ADH secretion?

ectopically produced ADH

12

DI is a result of ______.

insufficient ADH

13

A man with a closed head injury has a urine output of 6 - 8 L/day. Electrolytes are within normal limits but his ADH level is low. Although he has had no intake for 4 hours, there is no change in his polyuria. What are these findings indicative of?

neurogenic DI

14

What does a diagnosis of SIADH require?

1. a serum sodium level <280 mOsm/kg
3. urine hyperosmolarity

15

DI, DM, and SIADH all exhibit _____.

thirst

16

What is a result of dysfunctional ADH synthesis caused by a lesion of the posterior pituitary, hypothalamus, or pituitary stalk?

neurogenic DI

17

____ is associated with an insensitivity of the renal collecting tubules to ADH.

Nephrogenic DI

18

What are the basic criteria for diagnosing DI?

low urine specific gravity while sodium levels are high
****PROTEIN levels are NOT considered*****

19

How is neurogenic DI treated?

with ADH replacement therapy

20

What is the term correctly associated with the lack of ALL anterior pituitary hormones?

panhypopituitarism

21

Pressure on the ____ causes a variety of visual disturbances.

optic chiasm

22

The pressure produced by the tumor on neighboring anterior pituitary cells results in the hyposecretion of....

1. GH
2. Gonadotropins (FSH & LH)
3. TSH
4. ACTH

23

What is the terms for adults who have been exposed to continuously high levels of GH?

Acromegaly

24

What is the hallmark of a prolactinoma?

the sustained elevation of serum prolactin that is responsible for the symptomatology referred to in the stem.

25

The pathology of______indicates that normal regulatory mechanisms are overridden by abnormal immunologic mechanisms that result in the stimulation of excessive TH.

Graves' disease

26

The systemic symptoms of thyrotoxic crisis include....

hyperthermia and tachycardia

27

High levels of circulating thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins are found in more than 95% of individuals experiencing_____.

Graves' disease

28

The hyperfunction of the thyroid gland leads to suppression of ____ because of the normal negative feedback mechanism.

TSH

29

Graves' disease is characterized by...

a diffused enlargement of the thyroid gland