Ch. 21: Alterations of Hormonal Regulation (Slides) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 21: Alterations of Hormonal Regulation (Slides) Deck (34)
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What are 4 causes of elevated or depressed hormone levels?

1. failure of feedback systems
2. dysfunction of an endocrine gland
3. altered hormone inactivation/degradation
4. ectopic hormone release


Target cell failure is a result of receptor-associated disorders. What are some of these disorders?

1. decrease in number of receptors
2. impaired receptor function
3. presence of Ab against specific receptors
4. Ab that mimic hormone action
5. unusual expression of receptor function


Intracellular disorders are a result of....

1. inadequate synthesis of a second messenger
2. failure of the target cell to produce anticipated hormonal response.


What is the most common cause of SIADH?

Ectopic secretion of ADH


For diagnosis of SIADH, what must exist?

normal adrenal and thyroid function


What are 3 clinical manifestations of SIADH?

1. enhanced renal water retention
2. hyponatremia
3. hypoosmolarity


What is DI due to?

insufficiency of ADH


What are the major clinical features of DI?

Polyuria and polydipsia


The pituitary is vascular and therefore vulnerable to....

ischemia and infarction


What are the 3 causes of pituitary infarction?

1. sheehan syndrome
2. hemorrhage
3. shock


What are 3 manifestations of hyperpituitarism?

1. headache and fatigue
2. visual changes
3. hyposecretion of neighboring anterior pituitary hormones


A 45 yr. old male walks into the clinic presenting with an enlarged tongue, kyphosis, protrusion of the lower jaw and forehead and states he has noticed a need for increasingly larger sizes of shoes, hats, rings, and gloves. As a PA, what do you suspect this patient has?



Hypersecretion of prolactin is caused by....



What do increased levels of prolactin in females cause?

1. amenorrhea
2. galactorrhea
3. hirsutism
4. osteopenia


A 33 yr old WM presents to the clinic with hypogonadism, erectile dysfunction, impaired libido, oligospermia, and diminished ejaculate volume. Being the skilled PA that Nixy is, she immediately knows she should test for what?

increased levels of prolactin


pretibial myxedema is associated with....

Graves' disease


myxedema coma is associated with...



What is primary hyperparathyroidism?

excess secretion of PTH from one or more parathyroid glands


What is secondary hyperparathyroidism a result of?

increase in PTH secondary to a chronic disease


What clinical manifestations are present with hyperparathyroidism?

1. hypercaciuria
2. alkaline urine
3. hyperphosphaturia


Which cells are present in the pancreas due to Type 1 DM?

macrophages, T & B lymphocytes, and natural killer cells


A 5 yr old is brought to her PA by her mother. Her mother complains that the little girl is constantly hungry and thirsty but yet has not gained any weight. She also says the child has to urinate frequently and appears tired all the time. Being the super PA that Heather is, she knows that the child has...

Type 1 DM


This fat ass 35 yr old AAF presents to the clinic. She complains of needing a cold pop all the time and being too fat to work. Being the PA that stereotypes all there patients like we learn we do in CCM, what does the patient have?

Type 2 DM (thought you might need a laugh!!)


DKA is usually associated with which type of DM?

Type I DM


What are 4 characteristics of hyperosmolar hypergylcemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNKS)?

1. usually associated with Type 2 DM
2. higher glucose
3. less ketosis
4. severe dehydration and potassium deficit


What are 3 characteristics of the Somogyi effect?

1. usually associated with Type I DM
2. hypoglycemia with rebound hyperglycemia
3. not as common as once thought


What is the Dawn phenomenon?

early morning glucose elevation WITHOUT nocturnal hypoglycemia
- related to nocturnal GH elevation


What are 3 forms of macrovascular disease that are complications of DM?

1. coronary artery disease
2. stroke
3. peripheral arterial disease


A disorder of the adrenal cortex involving excessive anterior pituitary secretion of ACTH

Cushing disease


A disorder of the adrenal cortex involving excessive levels of cortisol, regardless of the cause

Cushing syndrome