Ch. 21: Alterations of Hormonal Regulation (Slides) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 21: Alterations of Hormonal Regulation (Slides) Deck (34)
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0

What are 4 causes of elevated or depressed hormone levels?

1. failure of feedback systems
2. dysfunction of an endocrine gland
3. altered hormone inactivation/degradation
4. ectopic hormone release

1

Target cell failure is a result of receptor-associated disorders. What are some of these disorders?

1. decrease in number of receptors
2. impaired receptor function
3. presence of Ab against specific receptors
4. Ab that mimic hormone action
5. unusual expression of receptor function

2

Intracellular disorders are a result of....

1. inadequate synthesis of a second messenger
2. failure of the target cell to produce anticipated hormonal response.

3

What is the most common cause of SIADH?

Ectopic secretion of ADH

4

For diagnosis of SIADH, what must exist?

normal adrenal and thyroid function

5

What are 3 clinical manifestations of SIADH?

1. enhanced renal water retention
2. hyponatremia
3. hypoosmolarity

6

What is DI due to?

insufficiency of ADH

7

What are the major clinical features of DI?

Polyuria and polydipsia

8

The pituitary is vascular and therefore vulnerable to....

ischemia and infarction

9

What are the 3 causes of pituitary infarction?

1. sheehan syndrome
2. hemorrhage
3. shock

10

What are 3 manifestations of hyperpituitarism?

1. headache and fatigue
2. visual changes
3. hyposecretion of neighboring anterior pituitary hormones

11

A 45 yr. old male walks into the clinic presenting with an enlarged tongue, kyphosis, protrusion of the lower jaw and forehead and states he has noticed a need for increasingly larger sizes of shoes, hats, rings, and gloves. As a PA, what do you suspect this patient has?

acromegaly

12

Hypersecretion of prolactin is caused by....

prolactinomas

13

What do increased levels of prolactin in females cause?

1. amenorrhea
2. galactorrhea
3. hirsutism
4. osteopenia

14

A 33 yr old WM presents to the clinic with hypogonadism, erectile dysfunction, impaired libido, oligospermia, and diminished ejaculate volume. Being the skilled PA that Nixy is, she immediately knows she should test for what?

increased levels of prolactin

15

pretibial myxedema is associated with....

Graves' disease

16

myxedema coma is associated with...

Hypothyroidism

17

What is primary hyperparathyroidism?

excess secretion of PTH from one or more parathyroid glands

18

What is secondary hyperparathyroidism a result of?

increase in PTH secondary to a chronic disease

19

What clinical manifestations are present with hyperparathyroidism?

1. hypercaciuria
2. alkaline urine
3. hyperphosphaturia

20

Which cells are present in the pancreas due to Type 1 DM?

macrophages, T & B lymphocytes, and natural killer cells

21

A 5 yr old is brought to her PA by her mother. Her mother complains that the little girl is constantly hungry and thirsty but yet has not gained any weight. She also says the child has to urinate frequently and appears tired all the time. Being the super PA that Heather is, she knows that the child has...

Type 1 DM

22

This fat ass 35 yr old AAF presents to the clinic. She complains of needing a cold pop all the time and being too fat to work. Being the PA that stereotypes all there patients like we learn we do in CCM, what does the patient have?

Type 2 DM (thought you might need a laugh!!)

23

DKA is usually associated with which type of DM?

Type I DM

24

What are 4 characteristics of hyperosmolar hypergylcemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNKS)?

1. usually associated with Type 2 DM
2. higher glucose
3. less ketosis
4. severe dehydration and potassium deficit

25

What are 3 characteristics of the Somogyi effect?

1. usually associated with Type I DM
2. hypoglycemia with rebound hyperglycemia
3. not as common as once thought

26

What is the Dawn phenomenon?

early morning glucose elevation WITHOUT nocturnal hypoglycemia
- related to nocturnal GH elevation

27

What are 3 forms of macrovascular disease that are complications of DM?

1. coronary artery disease
2. stroke
3. peripheral arterial disease

28

A disorder of the adrenal cortex involving excessive anterior pituitary secretion of ACTH

Cushing disease

29

A disorder of the adrenal cortex involving excessive levels of cortisol, regardless of the cause

Cushing syndrome