Flashcards in T1- Inf Dz of Heart Deck (108)
What is a major function of the cardiovascular system?
provides tissues with oxygen and nutrients and carries away carbon dioxide and waste products
The cardiovascular system moves blood in a ____ circuit.
What organ is divided into two halves, each half divided into an upper and lower chamber?
What covers the heart?
What are the three layers to the wall of the heart (from outer to inner)?
outer - epicardium
middle - myocardium
inner - endocardium
What is a one-way passage that returns fluids from the tissues to the cardiovascular system?
the lymphatic system
The cardiovascular system is highly protected, however, if microbes do invade what do they gain access to?
every part of the body
bloodstream infections = _________.
systemic infection (often with the suffix -emia)
What systemic infection can lead to septic shock?
What are the defenses in the bloodstream?
T/F: The cardiovascular and lymphatic systems both contain normal biota.
FALSE!! - Some microorganisms may be present transiently (filtering out of tissues) but they do NOT colonize the systems in the healthy state.
A patient came into the ED while Jen was the PA on call. The patient felt like they were having a heart attack. Along with this symptom, the patient presented with petechiae over the upper half of his body, fever, abnormal heartbeat, abdominal pain and was anemic. What is the first diagnosis Jen should suspect?
inflammation of the endocardium = _____.
When a patient presents with endocarditis, where does the infection usually occur?
in the valves of the heart
What is the causative organisms of acute endocarditis?
Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae
What is the most common mode of transmission of acute endocarditis?
What is the virulence factor of both acute and subacute endocarditis?
What is the culture performed to confirm diagnosis of both acute and subacute endocarditis?
What can be done to prevent acute endocarditis?
aseptic surgery or injections
What treatment is recommended for both acute & subacute endocarditis?
PCN, or vancomycin plus aminoglycoside - but surgery may be necessary
What are the distinctive features of acute endocarditis?
acute onset with high fatality rate
What is the causative organism for subacute endocarditis?
What is the most common mode of transmission of subacute endocarditis?
endogenous transfer of normal biota to bloodstream
How can subacute endocarditis be prevented?
prophylactic antibiotics before invasive procedures
What is the distinctive feature of subacute endocarditis?
slower onset that acute endocarditis
35-yr old WM comes to the ED presenting with 102 degree fever, shaking chills, GI symptoms, BP of 80/60, RR of 20, respiratory alkalosis and apparent altered mental state. What is the most likely diagnosis?
What are the causative organisms of septicemia?
bacteria or fungi
What is the most common modes of transmission of septicemia?
parenteral or endogenous transfer
What are the virulence factors of septicemia?
cell wall or membrane component