In Sigmund Freud's metaphor using an iceberg, what were the three labeled pieces of the iceberg?
What was the purpose of the iceberg in Freud's metaphor
Like an iceberg, which is mostly under water, Freud said that our mind was mostly unconscious.
What is the difference between conscious, preconscious, and unconscious thoughts?
Conscious = What you are currently thinking
Preconscious = What you are not thinking, but could be (e.g. memories)
Unconscious = What you are not capable of thinking about, but control your actions (e.g. Hatred for a parent, secret love for a person)
What are the three functions driving our behaviors and thoughts according to Freud?
What is the difference between the Id, Ego, and Superego
Id = "devil on your shoulder" - unfiltered, animalistic desires (evil)
Ego = "mediator" - does what is realistic, listenes to the Id and the Superego
Superego = "angel on your shoulder" - morality, (what Jesus would do)
In order, what are Freud's psychosexual stages of development?
Oral (<18 mo)
Anal (18-36 mo)
Phallic (3-6 y/o)
Latent (6 - puberty)
Genital (after puberty)
What was the term used when a person gets "stuck" in one of Freud's psychosexual stages, and it manifests itself later in life?
What are the two stages of fixation related to the anal stage - and what do they mean generally?
A person who is excessively tidy and/or hates messes
Messy, disorganized and/or rebellious
The defense mechanism where an individual completely blocks out from memory a traumatic experience
When a person reverts back to an earlier stage in development to deal with emotional trauma (e.g. sucking their thumb)
Acting opposite the way a person really feels
Example: Acting mean towards a person that you really like
Taking traits of ones' own self and placing them on others
Example: A selfish person is quick to see selfish traits in other people
Making excuses for bad situations
Example: You didn't get into the college you wanted, so you say you didn't want to go there anyway.
Taking your emotions out on an object or person unrelated to what caused your emotions
Example: You have a bad day at school, so you yell at your little brother when you get home.
Using an upsetting situation as energy to do something productive and good
Example: Your girlfriend breaks up with you, which makes you angry, but you use that to run faster in the track meet.
Refusal to accept reality
Your boyfriend breaks up with you. However, when asked you say, "No he didn't mean it, he'll be back, we have a date tomorrow night".
At what age did Freud say that our personality traits were made fairly permanent
According to Carl Jung, out entire society has a sort of shared set of traits, knowledge and experience. He called this:
What is the name of the psychoanalysts that came after Freud
What is the purpose of projective tests
To uncover, or "project" the unconscious.