Unit 9: Developmental Flashcards Preview

McGuinness AP Psychology > Unit 9: Developmental > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 9: Developmental Deck (43):
1

The name for a human egg immediately after it has been fertilized

Zygote

2

Ten days after conception, a baby is called a a(n)___________

Embryo

3

9 weeks after conception, a baby is called a(n) ______________

Fetus

4

Harmful agents that can attack an embryo

Teratogen

5

A disorder caused by consuming alcohol during pregnancy, characterized by disproportionately small head and brain damage

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

6

Piaget's term for the organizational structure for objects (e.g. "Cow" is something that is black and white, large, has four legs, and moos)

Schema

7

The process of adding to a schema (e.g. If you see a brown cow, you have to include "brown" to the schema description that might have previously only included black and white)

Assimilation

8

The process of refining a schema (e.g. Your schema for 'cow' might be "black and white and large" - until you meet a Zebra - then the schema needs refining)

Accomodation

9

Vygotsky's concept of providing cognitive support for a child

Scaffolding

10

The term Vygotsky uses for the optimal skill level of a new task to be learned by a child. At the lower level, the task might could be learned on one's own, and at the upper level, scaffolding may be needed to learn the task.

Zone of Proximal Development

11

A point in developmental time when a child can learn a skill most efficiently and quickly.

Critical Period

12

The name for a critical period at the beginning of life in animals where they learn extremely quickly (e.g. the first thing a newborn bird sees might become what it thinks of as "mother")

Imprinting

13

A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.

Temperament

14

Assuming an infant is brought up in the "correct" way - they will develop this - which means that they see the world as a basically good place.

Basic Trust

15

Who am I?

Self-Concept

16

How good do I feel about myself?

Self-Esteem

17

What are the four stages ages in Piaget's stages of development

1. Sensorimotor (Birth - 2)
2. Preoperational (2-7)
3. Concrete Operational (7-11)
4. Formal Operational (11-Adult)

18

What are the ages and characteristics of the sensorimotor stage of development

Sensorimotor
Age: Birth - 2 years
Characteristics: Experience the world through their senses (look, hear, touch...)
Develop "Object Permanence" during this stage

19

What are the ages and characteristics of the Peroperational stage of development

Preoperational
Age: 2 - 7
Characteristics: Beginning to use symbols (language) to represent objects. Use intuitive rather than logical reasoning
* Exhibit egocentrism and "pretend play"

20

The "me-centered" ideology of a child, where they believe that all other people feel, act, think, and even see what they do.

Egocentrism

21

If you are able to play peek-a-boo with a child, and they think you have left when hiding behind your hands, they have not yet developed ___________________

Object permanence

22

Describe the ages and characteristics of Piaget's "Concrete Operational" stage of development

Concrete Operational
Age: 7 - 11
Characteristics: Able to think in concrete ways, but not abstractly
Develop a sense of conservation of liquid during this stage
Are able to do mathematical transformation

23

What is a conservation task?

An example of a conservation task would be showing a child two equal volumes of liquid in two equally shaped glasses, and then pouring one of the glasses into a tall, thin glass, and asking which is "more" ("They are the same" would be the correct answer)

24

Describe the ages and characteristics of Piaget's "Formal Operational" stage of development

Formal Operational
Age: 11 - adult
Characteristics:
Able to think abstractly
Able to use moral reasoning

25

What are the three parenting styles, and briefly describe them

1. Authoritarian - Demanding, no exceptions to rules, "because I said so" - (i.e. drill sergeant)
2. Permissive - Submit to children's desires, few rules, small or nonexistent punishments.
3. Authoritative - Mix between authoritarian and permissive... rules, but provides exceptions when necessary and explains the reasons for rules

26

What is the (typical) result of the three parenting styles

Authoritarian - Lower social skills, lower self-esteem
Permissive - Aggressive and immature
Authoritative - Higher Self-Esteem, self-reliant, socially competent

27

Male sex hormone

Testosterone

28

The way we are expected to act in any given situation

Role

29

The way you are expected to act with respect to gender in any given situation

Gender Role

30

Kohlberg's idea that we develop our roles from watching others

Social Learning Theory

31

What are the three moral developmental stages according to Kohlberg

1. Preconventional Morality - follow rules because of consequences)
2. Conventional Morality - follow rules simply because they are rules
3. Postconventional Morality - follow (or don't follow) rules based on situational factors, rather than simply because of rules

32

Type of study which examines people over time. Uses different individuals for each time period. (e.g. Ask a 10 year old, 15 year old, and 20 year old the same question to examine any developmental differences)

Cross-Sectional Study

33

Type of study which examines people over time. Uses the same individuals for each time period. (e.g. Ask a 10 year old a question, then ask them again when they are 15, and again when they are 20)

Longitudinal Study

34

What are the two types of intelligence, and briefly describe them

Crystallized (Accumulation of knowledge)
Fluid (Abstract reasoning ability)

35

What is Erikson's Psychosocial Stage for humans from infancy to 1 year?

Trust vs. Mistrust

If needs are met, infants develop a basic sense of trust

36

What are Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of development?

A series of 8 developmental stages in named for the results of "passing" or "failing" those stages (e.g. 'Trust' vs 'Mistrust' would mean a child would learn to 'Trust' upon passing, and 'Mistrust' upon failure)

37

What is Erikson's Psychosocial Stage for toddlers (1 to 3 years)

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

Toddlers learn to exercise their will, or doubt their abilities

38

What is Erikson's Psychosocial Stage for Preschoolers (3 to 6 years)

Initiative vs Guilt

Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks, or feel guilty about their independence

39

What is Erikson's Psychosocial Stage for Elementary School children (6 - puberty)

Industry vs. Inferiority

Feel pleasure applying themselves, or feel inferior

40

What is Erikson's Psychosocial Stage for Adolescents (Teens - 20's)

Identity vs. Role Confusion

Test out integrating and refining new roles for the self, or become confused

41

What is Erikson's Psychosocial Stage for Young Adults (20s to 40s)

Intimacy vs. Isolation

Form close relationships, or feel isolated

42

What is Erikson's Psychosocial Stage for Middle Adults (40s to 60s)

Generativity vs. Stagnation

Sense of contribution, or lack of purpose

43

What is Erikson's Psychosocial Stage for Late Adults (60s +)

Integrity vs. Despair

Upon life reflection, satisfaction or failure