Flashcards in Unit 9: Developmental Deck (43):
The name for a human egg immediately after it has been fertilized
Ten days after conception, a baby is called a a(n)___________
9 weeks after conception, a baby is called a(n) ______________
Harmful agents that can attack an embryo
A disorder caused by consuming alcohol during pregnancy, characterized by disproportionately small head and brain damage
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Piaget's term for the organizational structure for objects (e.g. "Cow" is something that is black and white, large, has four legs, and moos)
The process of adding to a schema (e.g. If you see a brown cow, you have to include "brown" to the schema description that might have previously only included black and white)
The process of refining a schema (e.g. Your schema for 'cow' might be "black and white and large" - until you meet a Zebra - then the schema needs refining)
Vygotsky's concept of providing cognitive support for a child
The term Vygotsky uses for the optimal skill level of a new task to be learned by a child. At the lower level, the task might could be learned on one's own, and at the upper level, scaffolding may be needed to learn the task.
Zone of Proximal Development
A point in developmental time when a child can learn a skill most efficiently and quickly.
The name for a critical period at the beginning of life in animals where they learn extremely quickly (e.g. the first thing a newborn bird sees might become what it thinks of as "mother")
A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
Assuming an infant is brought up in the "correct" way - they will develop this - which means that they see the world as a basically good place.
Who am I?
How good do I feel about myself?
What are the four stages ages in Piaget's stages of development
1. Sensorimotor (Birth - 2)
2. Preoperational (2-7)
3. Concrete Operational (7-11)
4. Formal Operational (11-Adult)
What are the ages and characteristics of the sensorimotor stage of development
Age: Birth - 2 years
Characteristics: Experience the world through their senses (look, hear, touch...)
Develop "Object Permanence" during this stage
What are the ages and characteristics of the Peroperational stage of development
Age: 2 - 7
Characteristics: Beginning to use symbols (language) to represent objects. Use intuitive rather than logical reasoning
* Exhibit egocentrism and "pretend play"
The "me-centered" ideology of a child, where they believe that all other people feel, act, think, and even see what they do.
If you are able to play peek-a-boo with a child, and they think you have left when hiding behind your hands, they have not yet developed ___________________
Describe the ages and characteristics of Piaget's "Concrete Operational" stage of development
Age: 7 - 11
Characteristics: Able to think in concrete ways, but not abstractly
Develop a sense of conservation of liquid during this stage
Are able to do mathematical transformation
What is a conservation task?
An example of a conservation task would be showing a child two equal volumes of liquid in two equally shaped glasses, and then pouring one of the glasses into a tall, thin glass, and asking which is "more" ("They are the same" would be the correct answer)
Describe the ages and characteristics of Piaget's "Formal Operational" stage of development
Age: 11 - adult
Able to think abstractly
Able to use moral reasoning
What are the three parenting styles, and briefly describe them
1. Authoritarian - Demanding, no exceptions to rules, "because I said so" - (i.e. drill sergeant)
2. Permissive - Submit to children's desires, few rules, small or nonexistent punishments.
3. Authoritative - Mix between authoritarian and permissive... rules, but provides exceptions when necessary and explains the reasons for rules
What is the (typical) result of the three parenting styles
Authoritarian - Lower social skills, lower self-esteem
Permissive - Aggressive and immature
Authoritative - Higher Self-Esteem, self-reliant, socially competent
Male sex hormone
The way we are expected to act in any given situation
The way you are expected to act with respect to gender in any given situation
Kohlberg's idea that we develop our roles from watching others
Social Learning Theory
What are the three moral developmental stages according to Kohlberg
1. Preconventional Morality - follow rules because of consequences)
2. Conventional Morality - follow rules simply because they are rules
3. Postconventional Morality - follow (or don't follow) rules based on situational factors, rather than simply because of rules
Type of study which examines people over time. Uses different individuals for each time period. (e.g. Ask a 10 year old, 15 year old, and 20 year old the same question to examine any developmental differences)
Type of study which examines people over time. Uses the same individuals for each time period. (e.g. Ask a 10 year old a question, then ask them again when they are 15, and again when they are 20)
What are the two types of intelligence, and briefly describe them
Crystallized (Accumulation of knowledge)
Fluid (Abstract reasoning ability)
What is Erikson's Psychosocial Stage for humans from infancy to 1 year?
Trust vs. Mistrust
If needs are met, infants develop a basic sense of trust
What are Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of development?
A series of 8 developmental stages in named for the results of "passing" or "failing" those stages (e.g. 'Trust' vs 'Mistrust' would mean a child would learn to 'Trust' upon passing, and 'Mistrust' upon failure)
What is Erikson's Psychosocial Stage for toddlers (1 to 3 years)
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Toddlers learn to exercise their will, or doubt their abilities
What is Erikson's Psychosocial Stage for Preschoolers (3 to 6 years)
Initiative vs Guilt
Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks, or feel guilty about their independence
What is Erikson's Psychosocial Stage for Elementary School children (6 - puberty)
Industry vs. Inferiority
Feel pleasure applying themselves, or feel inferior
What is Erikson's Psychosocial Stage for Adolescents (Teens - 20's)
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Test out integrating and refining new roles for the self, or become confused
What is Erikson's Psychosocial Stage for Young Adults (20s to 40s)
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Form close relationships, or feel isolated
What is Erikson's Psychosocial Stage for Middle Adults (40s to 60s)
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Sense of contribution, or lack of purpose