Unit 14: Social Psychology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 14: Social Psychology Deck (44):
1

The theory that we either attribute people's behaviors to "dispositional" or "situational" factors

Attribution Theory

2

attributing the cause of behavior to the core of who a person is "he's just a bad person"

Dispositional

3

Attributing the cause of behavior to external factors - "yeah that was mean, but maybe he's had a really tough day"

Situational Attribution

4

The tendency for people to use dispositional attributions for negative behaviors instead of situational attributions

Fundamental Attribution Error

5

If you make a decision based on facts and logic from an argument, you used the ___________ route of persuasion.

Central Route of Persuasion

6

If you make a decision based on superficial qualities (e.g. attractiveness, niceness, mood,...) You used the  ___________ route of persuasion.

Peripheral Route of Persuasion

7

People tend to agree to large requests more often when they have previously agreed to a small one

Foot-In-The-Door Phenomenon

8

a set of expectations about a social position which defines how those in that position must behave

Role

9

The theory that states that when any two attitudes or behaviors don't agree (aren't consistent) - we act or change our thoughts to MAKE them agree

Cognitive Dissonance

10

The experimenter from the "shock experiment" in the 1960's that examined how much of a painful electric shock a normal person would be willing to give a stranger.

Stanley Milgram

11

In Stanley Milgram's original shock experiment, what percentage of people went "all the way" to the supposedly lethal shock

2/3 (67%)

12

The process of adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide to the group's

Conformity

13

Type of conformity stemming from a desire "to fit in" or gain approval

Normative social influence

14

Type of conformity based on lack of information ("maybe they know something I don't...")

Informational Social Influence

15

The phenomenon where people will perform better in the presence of other people

Social Facilitation

16

The tendency for some people to exert less effort in a group than they might on their own

Social Loafing

17

The process whereby a person's beliefs become stronger after discussion in a group

Group Polarization

18

The loss of self-awareness and disinhibition as a result of being a part of a large group (e.g. The man in the riot broke a store window)

Deindividuation

19

The phenomenon whereby individuals inside of groups often overestimate the level of agreement inside of the group.

Groupthink

20

The behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a grou of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

Culture

21

Rules for accepted and expected behavior

Norms

22

The negative thoughts directed toward individuals in a particular outgroup

Prejudice

23

The negative actions directed toward individuals in a particular outgroup

Discrimination

24

The overgeneralization of attributes of a particular outgroup (e.g. "All ____ are ____")

Stereotypes

25

The social groups with which we identify (e.g. "American", "McGuinness",...")

In-Group

26

The social groups that we do not belong to

Out-Group

27

The phenomenon where people tend to like the groups that they belong to and dislike the groups that they don't

In-group Bias

28

We have an easier time identifying faces of our own race than those of other races

Other-race effect

29

Individuals in an out-group look more similar than individuals in our in-group

Out-group Homogeneity Effect

30

The tendency to believe that the world is a fair and good place - therefore, people (and people groups) that do well and succeed are "good" and people (or groups) that don't are "bad"

Just-World Phenomenon

31

The theory that frustration causes anger which can cause aggression

Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis

32

We tend to like people more the more we are exposed to them

Mere Exposure Effect

33

If you want to get over your prejudice toward a people group (e.g. Canadians), you should interact with some of them

Mere Exposure Effect

34

The unselfish regard for the welfare of others - a completely unselfish deed

Altruism

35

Every action that we do is the result of a cost-benefit analysis. We examine the pros and cons of any given situation and do the action that maximises the pros and minimizes the cons

Social Exchange Theory

36

The tendency for a person to be less likely to help in a situation the more people that there are around

Bystander Effect (because of the Diffusion of Responsibility)

37

When people do something good for us, we have a natural tendency to do something good back

Reciprosity Norm

38

People tend to have a natural desire to help those in need

Social Responsibility Norm

39

The way in which outgroups see each other (evil and untrustworthy) - is very similar (i.e. We as Americans see those that we go to war against in a similar way that they see us, as evil - untrustworthy people)

Mirror-image perceptions

40

When a person acts in a way that confirms others' perceptions of them

Self-Fulfilling Prophesy

41

Who was the researcher in the "line experiment" which examined the rate of correct responses when alone or in a group of people unanimously giving incorrect responses

Solomon Asch

42

In Solomon Asch's famous line experiment, what percentage of people got at least one answer wrong when alone? 

What percentage got at least one wrong when in a group giving incorrect answers?

<1%

75%

43

When groups that do not like each other are given tasks where they must work together, they tend to like each other more - what is the name for these tasks?

Superordinate Goals

44

When you start out with a very large request to make a subsequent small request more likely (e.g. "Will you give me $1000 dollars?" "NO!" "... can you give me a quarter to help me buy a soft drink?" "... fine"

Door-in-the-Face